All about dogwood
Dogwood does not belong to widespread berries, but many of them are known for its healing properties, vitamins and beneficial substances. The fruits of this culture are widely used in recipes of traditional medicine and cosmetology, and its ability to store without loss of useful properties makes it possible to use berries at any time of the year, which is appreciated by many gardeners and gardeners.
The birthplace of dogwood
China is considered to be the historical birthplace of dogwood, on the territory of which the first mention of cultivation of this culture was found. However, today, the plant is found all over the globe: in Europe, South Africa, Asia Minor, Japan, North America and others. There is no dogwood except in Australia.
Did you know? According to the studies of linguists, the dogwood took its name from the Turkic language and means “red” in translation, which reflects its rich scarlet color.
What regions is growing
Dogwood is a heat-loving plant, the ideal place for which is a mild climate. However, there are many varieties that grow well also in the regions of the middle lane and even in the north. Having a fairly high frost resistance, the plant is able to withstand frosts to -35 ° C.If these indicators are exceeded, the bush may either die, or, blooming, not give ovaries, acting as an ornamental plant.
Calorie content and chemical. berry composition
Dogwood berries are low-calorie foods, which are completely free of fats (only 45 kcal per 100 g of fruit) and carbohydrates are prevailing, which carry an energy value.
Important! In addition to the main components, berries contain tannins (they give a tart taste), which are able to withstand many inflammatory processes in the body.
BZHU fruits (per 100 g) is:
- proteins - 1 g;
- fats - 0 g;
- carbohydrates - 10 g.
Such characteristics allow you to include berries in the diet menu. The composition also noted a high content of vitamin C, which is a stimulant for the immune system, and vitamin PP, which has a positive effect on the human cardiovascular and digestive systems.Among the nutrients, micro and macro elements are present, such as K (potassium), Mg (magnesium), Ca (calcium), P (phosphorus), Fe (iron), Na (sodium), S (sulfur), Se (selenium) , Zn (zinc), as well as pectin, malic acid and disaccharides.
Dogwood is a perennial fruit plant that belongs to the Kizilov family. The life span of this crop can last up to 100 years.
Shrub or tree
Dogwood can be either a bush or a small tree - the shape of the plant directly depends on its generic affiliation. Also influenced by the variety of culture, of which about 50 are known. However, in the middle zone, one species prevails - Ordinary (also called Male), which has the structure of a shrub.
The size of the plant directly depends on the species - the height of the bushes rarely exceeds 2.5–3 m and is about 2 m in diameter. Cultural trees can reach about 6 m, but in some cases their height can be 12-14 m, and the diameter of their crown can be up to 20 m.
How dogwood blooms
The flowering process begins quite early and lasts about 2 weeks - the first inflorescences form in April. However, this culture has one distinctive feature - its vegetation lasts about 200 days. That is why dogwood is almost impossible to grow in cold climates - despite the high frost resistance, the plant can bloom, but does not have time to fully form the fruits.
Inflorescences consist of small four-leafed flowers of 10–20 pcs. in one umbrella. Color - golden yellow, diameter - up to 5 cm.
Leaves and branches
The branches of the shrub are thin and flexible, with a smooth bark of red-brown color. The root system of the plant is in the upper layers of the soil. The foliage is oval or ovoid in shape, has relief parallel veins and smooth edges without peaks. It is characterized by short petioles. Color - saturated dark green.
Self-fertile or not
Despite the fact that cornel is a self-fertile plant and a good honey plant that produces a sufficient amount of nectar for bees, this plant requires cross-pollination. This is due to the early flowering period, at which the air temperature rarely rises above +10 ... + 12 ° C, which significantly complicates the work of insects.
Did you know? Dogwood is one of the oldest cultivated plants - the seeds of this culture were discovered during excavations of settlements that existed 3000 years BC. e.
Plants having one flowering period are planted as neighbors - this makes wind pollination more effective.
The berry is a juicy drupe shaped like a pear. The pulp of the fruit is dense and fleshy, the skin is strong. Inside is a large bone. The average weight of the berry is about 4 g. The standard color for dogwood is red, however, depending on the variety, the shades can vary - from white to orange or dark purple (almost black).
Despite the low weight, the level of crop yield is quite high:
- a bush aged 4–10 years brings about 10–12 kg of berries;
- 15 years - about 27 kg;
- from 25 years old - 80–90 kg.
Dogwood flavor: sweet or sour
Dogwood has a sweet-sour taste with a pronounced viscosity. Taste characteristics can vary slightly depending on the harvesting time: fruits taken during the period of technical maturity in order to ripen while lying, have not as pronounced taste as during full maturity.
Due to the small popularity of berries, many have many questions regarding this crop. There are many interesting facts related to this plant; The following are the most curious of them.
Fruit or berry
The fruits in the section are drupes - a juicy fruit that has a clear separation of layers (thin skin, fleshy flesh and stone).According to domestic consumption, cornel is not related to fruits, but to berries, as it is small in size and has a sweet and sour flesh.
What is different from cotoneaster
Many confuse cornel and cotoneaster berries. But, if you look, in addition to the name, these berries practically do not bind anything.
There are several main distinguishing features of these crops:
- Dogwood and cotoneaster belong to different families - Kizilov and Pink, respectively.
- Unlike dogwood, cotoneaster shrubs play the role of purely ornamental plants, and their fruits are practically not used for food, which is caused by the fresh taste of berries.
- The appearance of plants is also different. Cotoneaster has smaller sizes, glossy fine foliage and red or black fruits.
Dogwood and goji
Dogwood berries are also often confused with goji fruits. This is facilitated by their appearance - the same oblong shape and red color. However, all the similarities end there.
Goji berries have a different taste (although it also contains sweet and sour tones, as well as astringency), different chemical composition (in addition to a complex of vitamins, micro and macro elements, the fruits have a high calorie content of 309 kcal, and BJU - 11: 2 , 6: 53). Methods of application also differ: goji are most often used as additives to basic food (dietary or pharmacological).
Dogwood shrub refers to completely unpretentious plants, care procedures for which are minimized:
- timely watering - several times a month, with the calculation of 8 liters per 1 bush;
- soil fertilizer - obligatory introduction of complex fertilizer every spring;
- weeding - is carried out as the near-stem circle is overgrown with weed;
- loosening the soil - after each watering, in order to avoid the formation of a crust on the soil.
Systematic pruning and treatment of plants from diseases and pests is also recommended. You should be aware that in the first few years of the culture’s life, the cultivation procedure is carried out extremely carefully, not deeper than 10 cm. This is due to the surface location of its root system (at a depth of about 30 cm).
Important! The daily norm of fruits is 200 g.
Like every bush, dogwood needs thinning and removal of excess growth. In the same period, the soil under the plant will require additional fertilizer with nitrogen, which contributes to the growth and development of the aerial parts of the plant, as well as the introduction of organic matter - manure or humus. With the beginning of fruiting on the shrub, it is necessary to carry out only sanitary pruning, which involves the removal of broken, diseased, small or thickening branches.
Video: cutting and growing dogwood
Despite its popularity, cornel berries are widely used in various fields: in the food industry, cosmetology, medicine, pharmacology, and many others.
In the food industry
Due to the possibility of almost unlimited consumption of berries, cornel is used in many areas of the food industry:
- soft drinks - production of juices, syrups, syrups and extracts;
- alcoholic beverage direction - use for the preparation of liquors, liquors, tinctures, etc.
- confectionery industry - production of jams, jams, fillings, marmalade, marshmallows, figs and more.
In addition to the main areas, berries can be used in marinades, as a seasoning.The seeds of berries are pre-roasted, used as surrogate coffee, and the leaves from the bush - surrogate tea.
- Dogwood is often used as a medicine for the treatment of the following diseases:
- diabetes (lowers blood sugar);
- periodontal disease (relieves gum inflammation when rinsing with infusions);
- hemorrhoids and diarrhea (when used in food with bones);
- rheumatism (using infusions from the roots of the bush);
- gastrointestinal bleeding (using infusion of berries);
- viral or catarrhal diseases, including acute respiratory infections, influenza, as well as sand in the kidneys and bladder (using compotes, tinctures or decoctions);
- conjunctivitis (the use of juice helps);
- anemia and failure of metabolic processes (the use of raw berries).
- However, despite many positive qualities, the berries of this plant also have contraindications:
- Fruits should not be eaten by people with high acidity and gastrointestinal diseases (ulcers, gastritis and others).
- Dogwood has a tonic effect, and therefore is contraindicated for people with increased excitability, overexcitation, and those who suffer from insomnia.
- Fruits have a fixing property. If the daily intake is exceeded, the berries can provoke constipation.
In decorative gardening
Bushes are often used as ornamental plants - as hedges, groups of bushes and tree subsides. This is due to the ability of the plant to early and abundant flowering, high resistance to dust and gassed air, saturated green leafy cover and bright berries.
Dogwood is also often used in cosmetology - masks from these berries have a tonic effect on the skin and help get rid of fine wrinkles.In addition to berries, shrub wood is also used, which has increased strength - most often for accessories (door handles, buttons), but also for the manufacture of sports equipment and rackets for playing tennis.To date, dogwood has somewhat lost its former popularity, and therefore is quite rare in garden plots. However, due to its beneficial properties, berries are still widely used not only in various industrial fields, but also in everyday life - cornel jams, compotes and fresh fruits are excellent means for getting rid and preventing many ailments.