Raspberry-blackberry Hybrid hybrid: characteristics, features of agricultural technology
Often gardeners do not chase large crops, but try to grow something unusual or exotic, decorating the site and, at the same time, delighting with delicious fruits. One of these plants, by right, can be considered a hybrid of raspberries and blackberries. About it and will be discussed in the article.
Selection History: Raspberry-Blackberry Hybridization
Raspberry-blackberry hybrid appeared by chance in 1881 in California. This happened when growing alongside red raspberries and blackberries, between which cross-pollination occurred.
The Tabberry variety, or as it is also called Theberry, was created by the Scottish breeder D.L. Jennings in 1962 when the blackberries Aurora and raspberry Molling Jewel were crossed. The plant received its name in honor of the Tai River, on the banks of which there is an institute in which it was bred. For the final consolidation of varietal qualities and their testing 19 years of tireless work were spent. And only in 1981, young plants were launched for sale.
Characteristic, grade description
When choosing a weekly for growing, you need to become more familiar with all its characteristics, as well as disadvantages and advantages.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The variety is distinguished by the presence of many advantages:
- excellent taste;
- large berries (about 6 g);
- stable and average productivity (up to 5 kg from an adult bush);
- early ripening of fruits;
- excellent adaptive qualities;
- does not need pollinators;
- due to the good flexibility of the vines, it easily hides for the winter;
- unpretentious to the soil;
- It is resistant to many diseases.
- stems are covered with multiple spikes;
- overripe fruits become soft and dark;
- plants whose age exceeds 6 years, practically do not form shoots of substitution;
- average frost resistance and the need for shelter for the winter.
Optimal region and climate
The hybrid has good adaptive qualities. This makes it possible to cultivate in the southern and northern regions. But the most optimal climate is the conditions of central Russia, the northern part of Ukraine and Belarus. In these areas, Yezemalin is not as hot as in the south, although it needs shelter for the winter.
Features of fruiting
The process of formation and development of Tyberry fruits has the features:
- bushes that have reached the age of two years come into bearing;
- fruit ripening coincides with early ripe raspberries (mid-June);
- fruiting period lasts 4-5 weeks;
- ripened berries quickly re-ripen and crumble;
- leaf plates do not cover the berries from sunlight, therefore, when constantly in the sun, the fruits are baked, which affects the taste;
- growing bushes in the shade makes the berries much more acidic.
Did you know? Fruits of the Rubus genus and Blackberry relatives — princesses (Arctic raspberries) in ancient times were brought in the form of a quitrent on a par with sable skins. The plant is rare, the fruits taste like peach and pineapple at the same time.
Characteristics of berries
Tyumen berry fruits are characterized by the following indicators:
- elongated and large (about 5–7 g);
- bright red color when fully ripened changes to dark cherry;
- typical blackberry shine is present;
- grow brushes of 4-6 berries;
- break off along with the stalk;
- different sweet raspberry flavor and caramel aroma;
- pulp of medium density and juiciness;
- when overripe, they darken and become soft;
- storage and transportation - at an average level (like raspberries);
- They are used fresh, as well as for making jam, jam, jelly and other desserts.
From an adult 3-5 year old plant, on average, you can get up to 5 kg of delicious fruits. With proper observance of all agricultural practices, productivity can be increased to 7-8 kg from a powerful bush. The number of products depends on a successful wintering.
When growing this raspberry-blackberry hybrid, it is necessary to take into account some features when planting it.
Landing of the Tiberberry is allowed to be carried out both in spring and in autumn. In spring, this often occurs in April, when the weather allows and the soil warms up enough. In autumn, planting is carried out after the end of the plant growing season, but before the start of frost (October). Summer planting of vegetative bushes is also allowed, but at the same time it is necessary to try as much as possible to save an earthen lump around the root system.
Choosing the right place
The bramble-raspberry hybrid does not have special requirements for the composition of the soil, but when choosing a place for planting, it is preferable to take into account some nuances:
- grows better on nutritious loams and sandy loam soils;
- does not like heavy clay soils, as well as marshy areas;
- can not be planted in lowland areas and flooded with meltwater;
- does not tolerate drafts;
- the berries are not covered with leaves, therefore they are often baked in the sun - because of this, the bushes should not be under the hot midday rays;
- in the shade, the fruits will not collect sugar and remain acidic;
- given the two previous requirements, it is preferable to choose partial shade so that there is no sunshine, but there is enough light;
- slopes on the south or southeast side are considered a good option.
Important! You should not buy large bushes, they do not take root well and are sick for a long time. Preference should be given to annual seedlings.
Selection and preparation of planting material
The key to success in growing crops, first of all, is the right choice of planting material. When purchasing seedlings, you need to pay attention to the following aspects:
- on the stem at the base there should be at least three quality buds - it is from them that new branches will grow for the next season;
- the seedling should have a formed stem showing the ability to actively grow the bush;
- the roots should be moist, elastic, well developed, without symptoms of rotting or lethargy;
- the packaging of the roots should not be polyethylene, as they may suffer from waterlogging, it is better if the roots are wrapped in a damp cloth.
The seedlings do not require special preparation, but if there is no way to plant the plant immediately, you need to make sure that the tissue in which the roots are not drying out. But you can’t keep the bushes in this state for a long time, this will worsen the quality and survival rate of planting material.
Landing area must be prepared in advance. There are several options, depending on planting time and soil composition:
- during spring planting, even in the fall, you need to dig a site and clean it of any debris;
- on heavy soils, peat or sand (3 buckets per 1 m²) should be added to improve aeration;
- if water stagnation is possible (it is better to avoid such areas), then good drainage should be provided;
- fertilizers can be applied to the entire planting area, it can be several buckets of humus or compost (if the soil is acidic, wood ash is added, since the crop grows better on soil with neutral acidity);
- you can add top dressing directly to the wells (if they are prepared in the fall, then spring should be sprinkled on top of them with a layer of earth);
- if it was not possible to prepare the pits earlier, then a soil layer should be made between the laid fertilizers and the roots so that they do not get burns;
- 7-8 kg of rotted compost, 100 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium sulfate can be added to each well; ash can be used instead of mineral top dressing (1 l jar).
Planting the Yezemalin can be carried out by the bush or tape method.
In the first case, separate holes are dug with a distance between the bushes of 1 m, and between rows - up to 1.5-2 m. During tape planting, a continuous furrow of 0.4-0.5 m wide is made, in which plants are placed at a distance of 40 –50 cm from each other, and between the tapes the distance is 2–2.5 m.
Important! You can not abuse organic matter (especially fresh manure), since nitrogen fertilizers enhance the growth of bushes, but deplete the roots and reduce winter hardiness.
- Form pits 40 × 40 × 40 cm in size.
- At the bottom make a small hill.
- Place the root system of the bush on a knoll and spread it well.
- Sprinkle the roots with soil and gently compact it. The planted plant is a little deeper than it was before, but you can’t cover the root of the neck with earth.
- It is good to water and mulch the earth with peat, sawdust or straw (layer about 5–7 cm).
- The top of the seedling is cut so that no more than 30 cm of the stem remains.
Blackberry-raspberry hybrid is easy to care for, but requires the right approach:
- Watering should be infrequent, but plentiful. Depending on the weather, approximately every 10 days. Plants especially need moisture during the period of active growth of green mass, during the formation of the ovary and in dry periods. Drought negatively affects productivity, and waterlogging affects the sweetness of fruits (they become acidic).
- Excessive feeding is not required., especially carefully use nitrogen. It is enough to carry out seasonal application under each bush of about 20 g of nitrophosphate or 1 tbsp. ashes. Such dressing is carried out during the flowering period. A good option would be a mulch layer, gradually turning into fertilizer.
- Mulching the soil around the bushes, you can not only get good fertilizer, but also prevent moisture evaporation and weed growth. The thickness of the mulching layer should be about 10 cm. 4-5 kg of peat, mowed grass or rotted sawdust, introduced under each bush, will satisfy the needs of the plant.
- An important point in care is trimming., on which the yield depends in many respects. In the spring, dry, frozen and damaged stems are cut out, after which the remaining branches are tied to the trellis. When reaching a two-meter height, pinching the tops is carried out, which ensures the growth of the lateral stems of the second order (the main crop is formed on them). After collecting the fruit, remove the old branches, making room for young shoots. With this pruning, you need to leave about 4 strong shoots, which in the spring can be shortened by 20 cm before tying to the trellis, which will positively affect the size of the berries and yield.
- Tie the branches of ezhimalina to trellis It provides not only good lighting of bushes, a clean crop, reduction of diseases, but also simplifies maintenance. Mostly, the use of a single-cavity trellis with 4-5 rows of wire (or thick fishing line) is practiced, but you can limit yourself to 2 rows. The first row is stretched at a height of about a meter, and the second is slightly higher (1.5-2 meters). Fruit-bearing branches are tied to the upper wire, and young ones to the lower one. It is more convenient to tie in the fan type or in the shape of a bowl so that the whole plant is evenly lit.
- Before wintering bushes shelter.
Some gardeners oppose pinching the tops and shortening the shoots, arguing that the bush has good branching, but the growth of shoots is limited, which reduces the number of fruits.
Harvesting and storage
You need to pick up the berries of the berry as it ripens, preventing them from re-ripening, as their taste suffers greatly.For long-term storage, they are not intended because of the soft and soft pulp, so it is advisable to immediately use them for food or for making jam, compotes, jams and other desserts. If you carefully collect and stack the fruits in small containers with a thin layer, in this form they can lie for one or two days on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. But longer storage of the crop is not recommended in order to avoid loss of taste and spoilage of the product.
The Tabberry variety has moderate frost resistance, so gardeners, when preparing it for winter, recommend the following:
- at the end of the growing season, before wintering, watering is completely stopped;
- branches removed from the trellis are tied into bundles and fixed to the ground with brackets;
- in regions with snowy winters, the snow cover acts as a shelter, so the bushes can not be covered;
- in areas where severe frosts occur, it is better to remove the shrub from the trellis and cover it with spunbond or other suitable material, or simply sprinkle it with earth. Do not cover strongly, so as not to cause rotting and rotting of the plants;
- if the winters are not too cold, you can trim the shoots. In regions with severe frosts, it is not recommended to cut branches in the autumn and remove the shoots that have befallen away;
- some gardeners practice shelter with straw, fallen leaves or burlap, but such materials can become a refuge for rodents, the presence of which may be harmful to plants.
There are several ways of vegetative propagation of Yezemalin:
- In early spring, dug roots (diameter 0.5-0.7 cm) are divided into segments up to 10-13 cm and immediately planted in the ground in a horizontal position.
- In late August, young branches bend to the ground, and their tops (about 30 cm long) are dug into a hole up to 20 cm deep. In spring, young shoots will grow from them, and when they grow to 15–20 cm, they can be separated from the mother plant and transplant to a permanent place.
- The tops of young shoots (up to 20-30 cm) can be cut off and these cuttings used as planting material. This process is carried out in August. Cuttings are immediately planted to a depth of 15 cm. Next year, such cuttings will give full-fledged seedlings.
Diseases and Pests
Compared with raspberries and blackberries, their hybrid is less susceptible to diseases, but sometimes it is attacked by some diseases and pests:
- If the humidity is high, it can become covered with white plaque, indicating a disease powdery mildew. The berries become deformed, and the stems are brittle. You can get rid of the problem with drugs containing copper.
- Raspberry Fungal Disease rust manifested in the appearance of gradually increasing brown spots, causing drying and falling of leaves. The stems are also covered with brown ulcers. When these signs appear, the plants are removed and destroyed, since the disease is not subject to treatment. For prevention, spring and autumn treatments are carried out with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid.
- At verticillus wilting there is a gradual lethargy and yellowing of foliage, and later its complete decline. For prevention, spraying with Bordeaux is used.
- The characteristic swelling of the cortex in the lower part of the stems indicates the presence of eggs gall midges. A plant affected by this pest gradually dries out. Such plants should be dug up and destroyed.
- Raspberry beetle winters near the bushes, and during the flowering of the manor, migrates to the bushes and eats the buds. For prevention, a digging of the earth around the shrub is carried out. To combat the pest, a 10% solution of Karbofos is used.
- Great damage can be caused by larvae weevileating buds.In this case, the use of Karbofos according to the instructions is also effective.
Hybrid Taber, according to gardeners, is unlikely to take root on an industrial scale, but for individual plots it has become not only a supplier of tasty and nutritious fruits, but also a real decoration of estates.