Honeysuckle forest: main characteristics, toxicity, properties
Wild honeysuckle is grown in the garden as a decoration. Many gardeners use this type of plant as a design for a landscape plot. Description of forest honeysuckle, its external characteristics, as well as planting technology - further in the article.
Description of the species of forest honeysuckle
Forest honeysuckle, also referred to as ordinary and real, is a shrub that grows in coniferous and mixed forests. It can be found at the edge of the forest, in ravines or near the river. The bush is medium-tall, its height varies from 1 to 3 m.
Annual shoots have a slight pubescence and a dull green color. The old branches are brownish-gray with exfoliating bark. The leaf plates are light green in color with a small fluff over the entire surface. Their shape is oval, with a sharp point at the end.
Did you know? Honeysuckle genus name — Lonicera — was awarded in honor of the German botanist, mathematician and physicist Adam Lonitzer (1528–1586).
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening time
The berries ripen by the end of July, they are located on short stalks of 2-3 pieces in a row. The color of the fruit is bright red, the shape is round. The berry has a dense structure and elastic skin; its mass reaches 3 g.
The fruits of this type of plant are poisonous, so they can not be eaten. But healers often use the leafy part and the fruits of the plant to treat some ailments. The tool can cause a gag reflex, heal wounds and has a laxative effect.
The chemical composition of berries per 100 g:
- calories - 41.2 kcal;
- proteins - 0 g;
- fats - 0 g;
- carbohydrates - 8.5 g.
In contrast to the honeysuckle of edible varieties, the berries of which are colored blue, the fruits of the wild bush, in addition to useful substances, contain a large amount of toxic toxin called xylostein. It can cause severe vomiting and diarrhea.
Advantages and disadvantages of the species
- Among the advantages of the species can be distinguished:
- the plant is able to grow up to 25 years;
- has high winter hardiness;
- unpretentious to the choice of soil;
- tolerates dry weather well;
- easily adapts to harsh conditions;
- part of laxatives;
- able to cause a gag reflex;
- plant raw materials are used as anti-inflammatory and wound healing agents.
- Disadvantages and harm to the body:
- the bush needs constant care in the form of pruning;
- eating berries can cause severe poisoning;
- poisonous honeysuckle abuse can be fatal.
Honeysuckle cultivation is not a complicated process, the main thing is to take care of timely pruning, prevention of diseases and pests. This plant is not only a decoration of the site, but can also become a fortification of collapsing ravines, so it is so in demand among gardeners.
Video: Honeysuckle forest (wolf bast)
This view is undemanding to lighting. In the wild, real honeysuckle grows in the middle tier of the forest, so its shaded area is its usual environment. Often, crops are planted along the fence or at home.
Important! You can not plant a culture in swampy areas, as well as in places with a high occurrence of groundwater. Such an arrangement can provoke decay of the rhizome and yellowing of the leaves.
The plant develops well on light soils that have a neutral pH. Loamy and loamy soils are excellent for this.
Honeysuckle develops well next to coniferous bushes and other plants. A bad neighbor for this species is a birch, which is able to dry the soil
Landing and care
Honeysuckle can be planted in mid-April or early September. The landing site is prepared 5-6 months before the procedure, it is cleared of weed grass and other plant debris. The soil is dug up with 300 g of wood ash per 1 m² to a depth of 30 cm, then the site is leveled and left until the bushes are directly planted.
Step-by-step instructions for landing honeysuckle in the ground:
- Dig a hole 50 cm deep and 40 cm wide.
- Mix the topsoil with 5 kg of peat, 5 kg of river sand and 5 kg of compost.
- Pour the resulting substrate to the middle of the hole, forming a mound in the form of a hill.
- Introduce the seedling, gently spreading the rhizome on the substrate.
- Top up the holes with earth without additives and tightly compact.
- Water the plant with 5 liters of water.
- Mulch the soil near the trunk with peat.
Water the plant should be as necessary. It is necessary to ensure that the earthen lump is not too waterlogged. The best option would be to water 2-3 times a month.
Important! Depending on age, 10 to 25 liters of water are used per plant. The liquid is introduced into the near-trunk circle, avoiding contact with the deciduous part of the shrub.
The first 2-3 years after planting, the honeysuckle does not need additional fertilizer. Subsequent feeding of the plant is carried out in winter, autumn and spring. In November, 300 g of wood ash should be scattered under each plant. After the first snow falls, shrubs fertilize 25 g of ammonium nitrate, which is poured under the bush. With the advent of the thaw for digging, 10 kg of humus per 1 m² are added.
Pest and Disease Control
During prolonged rains, the crop may be affected by powdery mildew or ramulariosis of the leaves.
Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that manifests itself in the form of dusty white spots. They fill almost the entire sheet plate, leading to its yellowing and decay. If the plant is not treated, then fungal spores will quickly spread over the entire surface of the shrub, which will lead to a slowdown in growth and its slow death.
Powdery Mildew Control:
- Loosening of soil near the trunk.
- Harvesting and burning of damaged and fallen leaves.
- Using 1% Bordeaux liquid - 100 g per 10 liters of water.
Ramulariosis can affect the plant with excessive watering and high humidity. Fungal spores spread over leaf blades, forming large brown spots on them with white dots in the center. Over time, the disease progresses and leads to the fall of the affected leaves.
The fight against ramulariosis:
- Spraying with "Karbofos" - 5 ml per 10 l of water.
- Using a copper solution - 100 g per 10 liters of water.
- Collection and burning of fallen leaves.
Most often, honeysuckle is affected by such pests like aphids and spider mites.
Aphid It is a small insect that has a green color and reaches a length of 3-4 mm. Offspring of aphids hibernate on the shoots of shrubs, and with the advent of spring new individuals appear. The insect eats plant juice, traces of its effects can be seen on twisted sheet plates with a sticky coating.
- Irrigation with the drug "Karbofos" - 5 ml per 10 liters of water.
- Using a soap solution made from 200 g of laundry soap and 10 l of warm water.
Spider mite - a microscopic pest reaching a length of 0.4 mm. The insect settles on the leaves and branches of the plant, feeds on its juice. You can notice the presence of a spider mite on the bush by faded leaf plates, on the back of which there will be a small spider web.
- Irrigation with a 1% copper solution - 100 g per 10 liters of water.
- Spraying with an ash solution made from 300 g of wood ash, 100 g of liquid soap and 10 l of warm water.
Cropping and shaping the crown
Honeysuckle is in demand when decorating plots. Bushes are specially planted along the fence or at home to plant greenery. The plant is used in the design of flower beds and hedges.
Did you know? Japanese honeysuckle is the only species that can be grown indoors: from it make bonsai.
After planting the plant in the ground, the gardener should choose 4-5 of the most powerful shoots, they will be the main trunks. All other branches that are on the bush should be cut into a ring. The following year, the main branches are inspected for the presence of a new growth. Shoots growing at an acute angle are removed, because in the future they can lead to breaks in the crust. Longitudinal stems are cut out completely, because they greatly thicken the crown. This procedure is carried out for 5-7 years.
In the future, sanitary pruning is carried out, consisting in the removal of damaged and dry branches
Before the onset of cold weather, you need to clean the site of the remains of plant debris, as well as slightly loosen the soil near the plants. Honeysuckle is a winter-hardy crop that can withstand frosts down to -35 ° C and above, therefore, she does not need shelter for the period of frosts.
Forest or ordinary honeysuckle - a perennial shrub that is used to decorate areas. The culture is easy to grow and does not require special care.