Care for currant bushes in the fall
Currant is considered an unpretentious crop, but if you want to have a plant that is not decorative, but fully fruitful, you will have to work hard. The intricacies of autumn care are described in more detail later in the text.
Pruning in autumn
Autumn pruning is necessary for the following reasons:
- with sufficient nutrition and space, healthy plants tend to increase vegetative mass even to the detriment of the growth of generative buds. A large currant bush without berries is unlikely to please anyone;
- the removal of affected and shrunken branches reduces the possibility of wintering of various pests and pathogens, this event also helps to enhance flowering;
- makes the bush more compact and improves its appearance.
Currant pruning can be carried out both in the spring and in the autumn. But this process should be carried out during the stoppage of sap flow, otherwise it threatens with disease or even death of the plant. And since currants wake up from hibernation very early (approximately at the end of February), in spring it is not always possible to cut it in time. In the fall, when the shrubbery prepares for winter and the sap flow is suspended, the interval when bushes can be trimmed is much longer. This occurs in the period after the leaves are showered and before the onset of persistent cold weather, i.e. in late October or early November.
Important! You cannot cut the bushes too early, as a significant number of branches are cut, and this is a lot of stress for the plant. But pulling to frost does not make sense either.
At different stages of growth and at certain periods, currants need different pruning, which happens:
Important! If during cutting a black hole is found on the cut, such branches are removed and burned. This fact indicates the presence of a dangerous pest of glass, which affects not only currants, but also other shrubs.
To summarize, it turns out that autumn pruning involves removal:
- old shoots. An exception may be the case when such a branch is successfully located and, in comparison with others, is still productive. In this case, it can be left for another year;
- sick or weak shoots. Despite their young age, they do not need to be left, as they will be unproductive;
- extra stems. Of the young (annual) shoots, only about 6 of the most developed are left. All others must be removed directly at the base. Without regret, you need to cut off all the branches lying on the soil, as well as those that form an angle with the ground less than 45 °.
Subject to all pruning rules, a properly formed plant should have 10 to 15 branches of different ages:
- one-year - 4-6 pcs.;
- two-year - 2–4 pcs.;
- three-year-olds - 2–4 pcs.;
- four-year - 1-3 pcs. for black, 2–4 pcs. for red and white;
- five-year - 1-3;
- seven to eight year olds (for red and white) - 1-3 pcs.
Video: How to prune currants
What to do with a young bush
Young currant bushes are formed annually according to the following scheme:
- when planting a seedling, all its branches are cut to 2 or 3 buds. This will stimulate the plant to form 5-6 young shoots;
- in the 2nd year, all weak branches are removed and 3 to 5 of the most powerful are left, which will later become the "skeleton" of the future bush;
- the above is repeated with a three-year bush. T. leaves about 3-5 strong and correctly placed annual branches;
- on the 4th year from the moment of planting the seedling, everything repeats again.
During pruning, a large volume of branches is removed, and this is stress for the plant.To reduce it a bit, you need to use well-sharpened tools (secateurs or a hacksaw).
Rejuvenation of the old bush
With annual forming pruning, currant bushes have a fairly compact and well-groomed appearance. But, as already mentioned, five-year-old shoots of blackcurrant and six-seven-year-old stems of white and red lose their ability to bear fruit. Therefore, they are removed along with damaged, dry and weak branches.
With this anti-aging procedure, the branches are cut at the root itself along with shoots (tops). AT As a result, pruning five-year bushes is as follows:
- on 2–4-year-old stems, 3 or 4 buds are left, and the rest is cut off;
- on last year's shoots, the tops are pinched;
- up to 5 powerful shoots are left from young branches (of the current year), and all the rest are cut out.
If the formation of the crown was not carried out from the very beginning, then the plant becomes not so fruitful as decorative. But this is not a reason to get rid of him. You can rejuvenate the bush:
- initially all diseased and dried stems are cut out;
- all contact with the ground, interwoven or growing inside the bush stems are also subject to cutting;
- further cut old (more than 5 years) branches. They are easy to distinguish by a dark brown color (young ones are light gray or yellow);
- if on the old bushes weak shoots of substitution prevail, then all old branches should not be removed. Of these, leave those that have an increase of at least 10 cm and large flower buds. These branches are shortened to strong lateral branching, which next year will cause a powerful formation of young shoots. After that, next fall, it will be possible to remove the old branches left, and leave the young ones.
When trimming, remember:
- old branches are cut almost at the root, leaving a stump no more than 3 cm. If you leave more, then tops can form (unproductive branches of the old branch);
- sections should be treated with garden var to prevent infection with diseases;
- for red and white currants, branches older than 7-8 years of age are considered non-fertile;
- you can’t cut too many branches, the plant will hurt and may even die. After the procedure, at least a third of the initial plant volume should remain.
Video: How to rejuvenate an old currant bush
Care and preparation for winter
To obtain high-quality and plentiful harvests, autumn currant care is not limited to pruning. Further details on what other activities need to be carried out in the autumn.
Top dressing and bedding
During the growing season, plants consume a large number of macro- and microelements, which need to be replenished by applying fertilizers. It is necessary to understand exactly what substances the plants need in the fall, and why they are needed:
- nitrogen fertilizing is not introduced during this period, since they cause strong shoot growth, which reduces winter hardiness;
- A valuable fertilizer is ash, which in addition to potassium and phosphorus contains a large set of other trace elements. But its main advantage is its good digestibility by the plant. The optimal dose for each bush is 3 glasses;
- if you add organic matter in the form of compost or humus, then this should be done before frost (November), so that it gradually gets into the soil until spring and is absorbed by the plant at the beginning of the growing season. Organics is introduced into the near-stem circle in an amount of 4-6 kg for each plant;
- potash and phosphorus top dressings are used in the form of potassium sulfate and superphosphate (introduced in the form of granules for digging). In the future fruiting period, they will increase the quality and quantity of the crop.
Depending on the type of soil, a different amount of potassium and phosphorus is introduced under each currant bush:
- On fertile loams, 40 g of potassium sulfate and 100-130 g of superphosphate are added once every 2 years.
- Peat-bog soils are fertilized every 3 years (40 g of potassium sulfate, 150 g of superphosphate and 0.5 kg of lime).
- Sandy and sandy loamy soils are enriched after a year (50 g of potassium sulfate and 150 g of superphosphate).
In addition to top dressing, it also does not hurt to add soil around the bushes. For each instance, on average, you need about a bucket of peat or sawdust. The layer should be up to 10 cm thick.
Did you know? It is rarely possible to find golden currant in areas. She has the most interesting thing when ripening — on the bush at the same time you can see the fruits of black, brown, orange, pink and purple color.
If autumn turned out to be dry or with insufficient rainfall, then water-loading irrigation should be carried out. This procedure must be done for several reasons:
- the trunk circle is moistened to a depth of 80 cm;
- during sharp thaws, moist soil is thawed gradually and does not freeze sharply during cooling, which protects the plant from stress;
- watering has a beneficial effect on the growth and development of roots.
When conducting watering, you should adhere to certain rules:
- for each instance, up to 40 liters of water is consumed;
- watering is carried out in several stages (2-3 times with an interval of several days), as a sharp moisturizing can provoke rotting of the roots;
- can not be watered with cold water, because it causes the formation of voids in the soil, which subsequently freeze, and this is detrimental to the roots;
- watering can be carried out immediately after harvesting. In Siberia and the Urals, this occurs in September, and in the South this is October.
Most of the work to combat diseases and pests is carried out in the spring, but after the autumn pruning, preventive treatments can also be carried out:
- for spraying use a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid, Fitoverm, Aktara, Fitosporin, Skor and other similar preparations according to the annotations indicated on the packages;
- the bush is abundantly sprayed with the prepared urea solution (300 g / 10 l);
- the soil under the bushes is optionally watered with a light pink solution of potassium permanganate, 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid or copper sulfate.
Currants are frost-resistant plants, but thaws and icing of branches can adversely affect the plant and future harvest. For this reason, when preparing plants for winter, the bending and warming of the crown of bushes is practiced. There are several ways to tilt branches to the ground:
- gather the stems in a bunch and tie a brick or large stone to the top. Then bend the beam gently to the side and to the ground. Hold this event before the branches become brittle (end of October);
- drive a rod in the center of the bush, and wrap the entire plant with agrofibre. After a cold snap, the bush bends to the ground and sprinkles with soil;
- bend 1 or 2 branches to the ground in different directions and press down with bricks, pieces of slate or other suitable material other than iron.
Video: How to prepare a currant bush for winter
In Crimea and other regions with warm winters, there is no need to warm currant bushes for the winter. After trimming, they can simply be bent to the ground. In cooler regions, many European varieties run the risk of freezing. For this reason, their insulation is recommended, which can be done in several ways:
- after bending, cover with fir or pine branches, or with any non-woven covering material;
- a good option is a removable frame that can be easily removed during the thaw;
- small bushes can be covered with boxes or burlap.
Did you know? Currant berries have different colors: black, yellow, red, etc. But recently varieties with ripe green berries have been bred.
Treatment of the bite zone
Opinions in processing the area around the bushes radically diverge:
- Adherents of traditional farming methods argue that digging is a must. Moreover, it must be carried out with a coup of the earth layer. This, in their opinion, contributes not only to loosening, but also to the death of pests and larvae wintering in the ground;
- Proponents of organic farming argue that digging only harms plants by damaging small roots. Alternatively, they offer mulching;
- there are those who do not leave trunks at all, sowing this territory with lawn grass. In this case, the processing is simply raking the fallen leaves.
It is good if the proposed information on how to care for currants in the autumn period becomes useful and helps to achieve abundant and tasty crops.