Features of growing blackberries varieties Apache
Apache (Apache) - a new overseas grade of shipless blackberries, which is rich in vitamins and minerals. The main features are high productivity and very large berries. Nevertheless, the variety is rather capricious to climate conditions. How to ensure proper care of this garden novelty to obtain a large crop - more on this later in the article.
In 1988, breeders of the Arkansas Institute crossed the Navajo variety and an experimental hybrid under the code Ark.1007. As a result, in 1993, a new Apache hybrid was obtained. He surpassed the parental varieties in yield and berries.
Interesting that fruits do not grow smaller throughout the fruiting season. Blackberry shoots without thorns, and the fruits taste sweet. In 2001, after further testing, a patent was published for the variety. Then it became widespread not only in the United States, but also in Europe.
Did you know? America is considered the birthplace of blackberries, where the first varieties appeared at the beginning of the XIX century. And in Europe, it came into use only in the second half of the XIX century.
Apache fruits are perfectly transported and unpretentious to storage conditions due to a number of features:
- large berries (7–9 g), oval;
- color bluish-black with a characteristic sheen;
- seeds of medium size, in weight reach 5 mg;
- the taste of fruits is sweet, with a slight acidity;
- green leaves, three-lobed;
- flowers are white and large, in diameter reach 4 cm;
- bushes are tall, without thorns;
- directly growing stems reach 3 m in height.
Resistance to diseases of this variety is under study. But it is known that it does not give in to leaf rust and anthracnose
There is an opinion among specialists that Apache variety will be able to squeeze out most commercial varieties from the export market. It is possible thanks to yield and excellent transportability of the variety. However, dependence on the temperate continental climate slowed down the pace of cultural spread around the world.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
The winter hardiness of the bushes is low - they can withstand a temperature drop of -20 ° C. In colder climates, culture requires compulsory shelter for the winter. In the first year of growth, the shoots should be covered in a horizontal position.
Did you know? The productivity of the Apache hybrid is the highest of all the non-studded varieties bred by breeders of the University of Arkansas.
The variety also does not withstand extreme heat. At temperatures above + 40 ° C, the growth of the bush and the berries themselves slows down, and the leaves dry out. In such heat, regular watering is mandatory. It is better to apply drip irrigation or completely shade the bushes with special nets.
Apache stands out for its high yield. From one bush you can collect 4-5 kg of fruit. The berries are quite dense, do not flow and do not crumple. This is the key to successful transportation. The plant begins to bear fruit in the second half of June, and the harvesting period lasts 4-5 weeks.
Video: Blackberry Apache
Inexperienced gardeners may assume that the cultivation of all varieties of blackberries has the same pattern of action. But this is not so. The American non-studded variety is very whimsical to the quality of the soil and the amount of lighting, so the rules for planting are slightly different.
In the southern regions, autumn is considered the best time for planting (mid-September-early October), a month before the onset of cold weather. In regions with harsher climates and frosts down to -15 ° C, blackberries can only be planted in spring (early to mid-March).
The sweetness and timely ripening of berries directly depends on growing conditions. Choose a place based on the climatic conditions of the region:
- in the conditions of a long and hot summer shaded areas are suitable for planting, while the place should be well ventilated;
- in regions with a temperate climate and non-hot summer (for example, the central part of Russia) it is better to set aside sunny and well-lit areas protected from cold air currents;
- in the northern regions (Siberia, Urals) it will be very difficult to find a suitable place for growing Apaches, so it is not recommended to grow a variety there.
The best soil for breeding blackberries should be rich in humus and with good drainage.
Selection and preparation of planting material
Land preparation for landing is carried out in the fall. A soil layer of up to 25 cm deep is dug up, adding fertilizers in the form of accumulated ash or dolomite flour. First, the place for the blackberry needs to be cleaned of weeds and old roots.
Annual seedlings with 2–3 shoots, 5–10 mm thick and developed roots up to 10 cm in length are better taken root. Before planting, the bushes need to be cleaned of rotten and damaged roots, and healthy ones should be slightly shortened.
US experts recommend placing blackberry bushes at a distance of at least 1 m from each other, and leaving about 2 m between rows. So the bushes can obscure each other from direct sunlight.
The landing scheme itself is as follows:
- Dig holes for seedlings with a depth of 50 cm. This must be done 2 weeks before planting.
- Then, as a fertilizer, put 5-6 kg of humus on the bottom of the hole or mix 5 kg of bird droppings and 100 g of wood ash.
- A sapling is put in the hole, the roots are covered with earth. The root neck should not go deeper than 1.5 cm above ground level.
- Around the seedling make a hole and pour 5 liters of water.
- Next, the soil under the bush is sprinkled with mulch, and the shoots are cut by 4-5 cm.
If you properly observe the planting scheme, the plant will be able to bear fruit for more than 15 years
For the successful cultivation of Apache varieties and obtaining a large crop, it is important to observe a number of agrotechnical measures for caring for the plant. Proper watering, pruning, top dressing and loosening will not cause great difficulties even for novice gardeners.
Important! Organic fertilizers can not be applied to the soil where blackberries are grown more often than once every 3 years. Otherwise, the plant will direct all forces not to bear fruit, but to the growth of the bush itself.
So, to properly care for the blackberry you need as follows:
- Watering. Bushes need watering several times during the season - during the flowering and fruit season. The final deep watering is carried out after harvesting. Watering should be done 1 time per week for 0.5 buckets of water for each bush. In dry summers, it is better to use a drip irrigation system. So you can save both time and water consumption.
- Loosening. After irrigation or rainfall, it is important to loosen the soil and clear the weeds. So the roots can get more oxygen. But this should be done only with young shoots. The root system of adult plants is more developed and when loosening it can be damaged. This will negatively affect the growth of the bush.
- Top dressing. If the soil was fertilized when planting a blackberry, then the next top dressing is carried out after 2-3 years. In late March and early April, you can make 0.5 buckets of humus or 50 g of saltpeter around each bush, then dig it up. So the fertilizer mixes better with the soil. In autumn, ground under the plant can be sprinkled with ash at the rate of 100 g per bush.
- Pruning. In early spring and early May, you can carry out the first pruning. It will help increase the yield. Young shoots are cut above 1.2 m, and the tops are pinched by 20–25 cm. In September-October, after harvesting, pruning is carried out to form a bush and provide a comfortable shelter for the plant for the winter. Pinching of vertical shoots is performed at a height of 0.45 m. After this, the branches are let out horizontally along the trellis.
Video: Proper planting and care of a blackberry
Harvesting and storage
Apache fruits are harvested as they ripen. The berry breaks with the stalk very carefully so as not to damage it and not crush it. It is important to sort the crop in dry containers (food containers, wooden crates), separately stack the spoiled and whole berries, and clean them of garbage, leaves and branches.
If the blackberry is intended for transportation, you don’t need to wash it. For home storage, berries must be washed after harvest. It is better to do this in the shower, using a colander, because under running water you can damage the berries.
Important! Unripe berries cannot be stored, as they will not ripen in their ripped form. Collect Apache blackberries only when the fruits have acquired a characteristic bluish-black color.
There can be several storage methods:
- Fresh crop is stored for 4-7 days at a temperature of 0 ° C. The berries should be laid on a tray covered with a dry cloth and placed in the refrigerator.
- Dried blackberries can be stored for about 2 years. The peeled fruits are laid out in a single layer on a sunny place and dried for 2-3 days. To protect against insects, you can cover the crop with gauze. Next, the berries are dried in the oven at a temperature of + 75 ° C, and one hour before completion it must be reduced to + 45 ° C.
- Fruits rubbed with sugar can be stored in a cool place for more than a year. Such a dish does not undergo heat treatment and preserves the whole complex of such useful substances as magnesium, calcium, potassium and vitamins A, B1, B2, C and PP. Blackberries are added to clean jars and sprinkled with sugar in a proportion of 1 kg of fruit per 1 kg of sugar. After 10 days, you can add more berries to the container, close tightly and store in a cool place (refrigerator or basement).
- Frozen blackberries have been stored for over a year. To do this, put the washed berry on a tray and send it to the freezer. Pre-freezing lasts 1.5 hours. Then the fruits can be transferred into plastic bags in small portions and sent to the freezer for further storage. This method is the most popular, because berries can retain both beneficial properties and sweet taste.
As practice shows, the Apache blackberry does not need winter shelter only on the Black Sea coast. In other regions, it can die from cold winds and low temperatures.
Did you know? Apache root cuttings have the best survival rate among the rest of the non-studded blackberry varieties.
Cover the bushes for the winter is not difficult. Young shoots of the plant should be bent to the ground and covered with agrofiber, straw, cardboard or any non-woven material. So the bushes can withstand temperatures up to -20 ° C.
Many gardeners want to have several sweet berry bushes on their plot, and sometimes whole plantations are planted. But you need to know in what period and in what way to do it right. As for the cultivation of Apache, this procedure is possible in two ways:
- Breeding by root offspring Applies to plants older than 3 years. It is better to do this in the spring, with the onset of a stable warm air temperature. In such bushes, the root system is well developed, from which young shoots appear - offspring. The shoots already have roots, so it’s enough to dig them out and transplant them to a new place.
- Top propagation of shoots - A fairly common and easy way. In late July and early August, the tops of annual shoots are buried in the ground. Previously, you can prepare a hole with a depth of 20-30 cm and place branches in it. After 3-4 weeks, the tops should take root. In spring, they can be transplanted to a permanent place by separating the seedling from the uterine bush.
Diseases and Pests
This grade resistant to diseases, including rust and anthracnose. But with severe waterlogging, there is a risk of infection with gray rot.Prevention of fungal diseases should be carried out regularly, because the fungus can get through damage in the leaves or shoots of the plant.
Consider the most common diseases that blackberry bushes are exposed to:
- Rust. The disease occurs throughout the summer and autumn season. In early summer, small orange dots appear on the leaves, in mid-summer, the lower leaves are covered with brown pads, and then completely fall off. Prevention of rust consists in cleaning fallen leaves, proper watering and mulching with humus. At the first signs of the disease, you need to treat the bushes with fungicides ("Title Duo", "Tinazol", "Tilt", etc.). Drugs are used at the rate of 200-400 l / ha. The required amount is added to the sprayer and diluted in 1.3 liters of water. Young leaves are treated 2 times with an interval of 15–20 days.
- Purple spotting. This fungus affects young shoots, buds, petioles. The disease develops in conditions of high humidity. Manifested by purple spots on the stem, blackening and drying out of the buds, necrotic spots on the leaves and their decay. The treatment is carried out with fungicides (similar to rust) or by spraying with 2% Bordeaux fluid. In order to prevent fungal diseases, the mixture is used in the spring (during kidney swelling), and for treatment - in the fall (late October to early November). For the season, it is recommended to carry out no more than 3 sprayings. Consumption per 1 m² is 0.15 liters of solution.
- Anthracnose. This disease develops well in rainy summers or with too much watering. It affects leaves, shoots and berries. At the end of spring, shoots become covered with purple spots, and gray ulcers with purple edges appear on the fruits. Anthracnose is irreversible for blackberries, so the diseased plant needs to be burned with roots and in the next couple of years do not plant berry bushes in this place. Prevention is fungicide treatment, as is the case with purple spotting.
- Septoria The fungus often develops in rainy summers and is determined already at the beginning of the season. First strikes two-year-old shoots, then - annuals. Symptoms are pale brown spots on the plant. If you start the disease, then mucus appears on the bush, and the berries completely rot. Treatment in this case is useless. Prevention of the disease is carried out by fungicides, as well as with rust.
Blackberry Apache, like any other variety, requires proper care. Fulfilling the above recommendations, any gardener can not only decorate his plot with an overseas novelty, but also collect a large crop of tasty, juicy, fleshy, and most importantly: healthy berries.
Network user reviews
I behave well. Berries do not bake in the sun. Apparently it affects that it was not planted in the sunshine itself. Two weeks ago I tried the first berry, which has fully ripened - the taste is excellent, the berry is sweet, but not so much that it is tasteless, and there is apparently sourness, which is not noticeable, but it makes the berry delicious. Bruises are felt. Do not throw away! Take a look next year.