Currants crossed with gooseberries - yoshta: appearance, features
Joshta, an amazing hybrid of gooseberries and blackcurrants, is the result of the selection work of the famous German geneticist R. Bauer. The cultivar has gained high popularity, primarily due to the absence of thorns on the shoots and uneven ripening of fruits, which makes it possible to harvest for several weeks. What are the main advantages of the hybrid and what are the features of its agricultural technology - more on this later in the article.
Description of a hybrid of blackcurrant and gooseberry - yoshta
As a result of crossing gooseberries and black currants, scientists were able to create a new hybrid form of berry shrubs called yoshta, which is characterized by excellent yield indicators, large fruit sizes and their high taste properties.
Attempts to cross gooseberries and black currants have been carried out by breeders for over 100 years. The first to conduct such experiments was the famous Russian scientist I.V. Michurin. However, neither he nor his followers from different states succeeded in obtaining viable specimens. In the process of crossing two cultures, the main task was to obtain a plant with shoots without thorns, high productivity, resistance to bud mites and terry.
Did you know? The hybrid yoshta got its name as follows: “yo” - the first 2 letters of the German word “currant”, or Johannisbeere, and “shta” - the first 3 letters of the German word “gooseberry”, or Stachelbeere.
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening time, yield
The plant forms a sprawling, fairly powerful bush up to 1.5 m high, with strong and durable springless shoots. Usually the fruiting bush has about 15–20 branches of different ages. During the growing season, the culture forms few shoots, and therefore it does not need a systematic strong pruning.Yoshta is an early ripening berry shrub that, according to the description, is similar at the same time to gooseberries and black currants, but has a number of significant differences.
The rhizome of the plant goes into a depth of 0.5 m, while not forming a large number of shoots. The green mass of the bush is represented by large leaves with a shiny surface, dark green color, characterized by a weak aroma of currant. During flowering, which falls in mid-April, large and bright partially self-fertile flowers appear on the bushes, which later turn into fruits.
Yoshta fruits are rather large berries the size of a cherry, weighing from 3 to 5 g, the correct round shape, black color with a purple tint. A feature of the fruit is their dense, hard and crisp peel. The pulp has a high juice content, it tastes sweet, with a slight hint of acid, has a nutmeg aroma.Currant on the left, yoshta on the right.
Fruits have high nutritional value: they contain anthocyanins, vitamins A, P and C, and the content of ascorbic acid is four times higher than in black currant. The berries hold tightly on the branches and, even after full ripening, do not crumble for two weeks.
Fruiting in a plant starts in the second year after planting seedlings and continues annually.The yield of the bush is quite high and, under conditions of proper care, is about 7–10 kg per plant. The vitality of the culture is 20-30 years.
Advantages and disadvantages of the hybrid
- Reviews gardeners involved in the cultivation of a mixture of currants and gooseberries include a number of its positive qualities:
- great sweet taste with a slight acidity;
- good shelf life of berries and transportability;
- excellent resistance to frost;
- good adaptation to environmental conditions;
- high resistance to many ailments;
- the fruits do not crumble, even after full ripening;
- unpretentiousness in leaving.
- The culture has several disadvantages:
- exactingness to soils;
- the need for large space for the full growth of bushes;
- the need for close proximity of parental forms for a high yield.
Popular yoshta varieties
There are several varieties of yoshta that differ in the palatability of the fruit, the ripening time, the size of the bushes:
- EMB. One of the most popular varieties created by English breeders. The plant is tall, grows to 1.7-1.8 m, has a semi-spreading crown. The appearance of the bush, the size of the leaves and buds of EMB resembles currants, but the shape and color of the green mass are more similar to gooseberries. The fruits of the variety are large, oval, with a weight of 5 to 12 g, sweet and sour taste. The advantages of EMB are excellent drought resistance, abundant fruiting, resistance to powdery mildew, spotting and ticks.
- Hybrid Chrome. It refers to the results of Swiss breeding and is able to please with overall dimensions, thick, long shoots with a diameter of about 2 m.Krom berries do not differ in large sizes - they have a mass of not more than 6 g, but they stay perfectly on the branches after ripening. The average yield of the bush reaches 5 kg. Culture has a strong immunity and is not afraid of diseases characteristic of its parental forms.
- Yokhilina. The described variety is considered one of the best. It is characterized by high yields, resistance to many fungal ailments and pests - in particular, spotting, anthracnose, ticks. Yokhilina forms sprawling powerful bushes with dense shoots, which should be thinned out. Berries have a very sweet taste, while not at all like the taste of gooseberries and currants. For one season, gardeners gather about 200 tons of berries per hectare.
- Rext This variety, which is the result of the work of Russian scientists, is mainly used by gardeners as a decorative decoration of the garden, because it has a very beautiful and original look. The bushes grow quite sprawling, up to 1.2 m high. The berries, although they cannot please them with large sizes, have a great taste that surpasses the taste of all European hybrids. Productivity is above average and equals 10 kg per shrub.
Since the yoshta hybrid is the result of mixing gooseberries and black currants, the basic rules for growing the crop will be similar to the agrotechnics of cultivating each of the parental forms.
Important! Rext for full growth and decent fruiting requires a shaded place of growth. Under the influence of sunlight, the leaves of the culture burn, the fruits become smaller and lose their amazing taste.
Most yoshta varieties prefer to grow in open, free, well-lit areas, protected from drafts and cold winds. However, care must be taken to ensure that the shrub is not exposed to uninterrupted exposure to direct sunlight.
The hybrid responds well to nutrient, air- and moisture-permeable soils, enriched with organic substances, in particular potassium. It is necessary to give preference to well-moistened, but not marshy soils.Excessive dryness can cause the shoots to dry out and the fruit to become smaller, and an excess of moisture can lead to rotting of the root system.
As a planting material, annual seedlings are chosen, which are much faster, easier to take root and bear fruit than older plants. When choosing seedlings, you need to pay attention to:
- root system - the roots must be strong, healthy, without signs of damage, decay, dryness, roughness;
- bark - it should be resilient and elastic, with a smooth, not rough surface.
Important! Seedlings are recommended to be purchased in special markets or fruit and vegetable nurseries, which guarantee a hybrid grade.
Yoshta planting is carried out in springtime, if crops are grown in the northern regions, or in the fall, provided that the bush is cultivated in the southern zone. Since the culture forms tall and sprawling bushes, it must be planted at a distance of about 1.2–1.5 m from each other. If the hybrid is grown to create a decorative fence, then the distance between the bushes can be reduced. A few days before planting, the soil should be enriched with a mixture of chicken manure (200 g) and humus (2-3 kg). Such dressing can provide the plant with the necessary nutrients in the first months of development.
Video: landing yoshta
The technology for planting seedlings is quite simple and is based on the following actions:
- dig a recess 60 × 50 cm in size;
- at the bottom of the pit, line the drainage layer of expanded clay, broken brick, pebbles;
- fill the fertile soil on top of the drainage layer onto which to plant the seedling;
- gently spread the roots of the plant so that they do not bend anywhere;
- fill the seedling with soil, leaving about 20 cm of the stem on the surface;
- water the bush plentifully, mulch the ground of the trunk tree with natural materials - for example, hay, straw, peat.
As noted above, when planting several bushes, the distance between them should be approximately 1.2–1.5 m, the interval between rows should be up to 2 m.
Important! Yoshta reacts negatively to the neighborhood of raspberries, red currants, and junipers.
Caring for the described bush is almost identical to caring for blackcurrant, but it has some nuances.
Hybrid prefers good moisture, especially during flowering and fruit formation. The frequency of watering should ensure constant soil moisture to a depth of 30–35 cm. As a rule, in the absence of rain, it is enough to moisten the shrub 1-2 times a week, while about 3 buckets of water will be needed per plant. After wetting the plant, it is recommended that the soil is well loosened and mulched.
For irrigation, you need to use non-cold, standing water.
Feeding and pollination
Yoshta is a plant that needs regular fertilizing for full fruiting. Fertilizers during the growing season are applied several times:
- in the early spring, after the snow melts, the culture is fed with nitrogen-containing preparations, for example, urea or nitrate, which provide active growth of green mass;
- after flowering, approximately at the beginning of June, the bushes are fertilized with a solution of potassium monophosphate, in volumes of 10-15 g of product per 1 m² of plot;
- in mid-summer, a solution of organic fertilizers, for example, mullein or bird droppings, is used for feeding;
- in autumn, after harvesting, the soil under the bushes is enriched with superphosphate, at the rate of 30 g per 1 m², or humus - 2 buckets per 1 m².
Yoshta is partly a self-fertile plant, which is why in order to achieve higher yields, it is recommended to plant representatives of parental forms near the bush.
Pest and Disease Control
The hybrid has excellent immunity and is rarely affected by ailments. Accordingly, protection from diseases and pests comes down to simple preventative measures:
- regular destruction of weeds on the site;
- compliance with feeding and irrigation schemes;
- prevention of overmoistening of the soil;
- timely destruction of fallen leaves and vegetation;
- systematic sanitary pruning.
Under adverse climatic conditions, the plant may be affected by rust or mosaic, which are treated by spraying with fungicidal preparations.Of the pests, a special danger to the culture is the glass-case - a butterfly with transparent wings, the larvae of which eat the core of the shoots.
Eating in this way, parasites gnaw through hollow tunnels 30–40 cm long, which causes significant damage to the bush. High efficiency in the fight against a butterfly is shown by spraying bushes in the middle of the summer season with insecticidal preparations, for example, Decis, Fufanon.
You can prevent the development of diseases and the appearance of parasites with the help of preventive treatment of shrubs with special preparations:
- Bordeaux liquid;
- solution of copper sulfate;
Spraying is carried out with an early vein, before the buds begin to bloom, and in autumn - after the leaves fall completely.
Trimming and shaping a bush
Yoshta forms powerful bushes with long and strong shoots that need growth control. That is why the formation of a bush and pruning of branches is recommended to be carried out systematically.
Video: cropping yoshta
Formation should be carried out in early spring, in the second year after planting material is planted. To do this, from the shoots that appear, choose 4-5 the most durable and strong, and cut the rest. In autumn, if many long shoots have formed on the shrub, their tops are shortened.
Did you know? Gooseberries and black currants are considered close relatives. And kiwis are the fruits of a cultivated Chinese gooseberry.
Preparing for the winter
When growing plants in regions with a warm climate, there is no need to specially cover it for the winter, since the hybrid is characterized by excellent winter hardiness. In the northern regions, where colder weather prevails, the bushes need to be insulated before wintering. For this:
- after harvesting the fruit, the bush is abundantly watered, the trunk circle is mulched;
- a few weeks before the alleged frosts, the trunk of the plant is covered with any breathable material, such as burlap or agrofiber.
Harvesting and transportation
The first fruits of yoshta begin to ripen in the second decade of July, while the ripening of the berries is uneven - for 2-3 weeks. With a shortage of time, you can wait for the ripening of all fruits and collect them at the same time, since they do not fall from the bushes. Harvesting is carried out in warm, dry weather, morning or evening. Torn berries are stacked in a small wooden or plastic container.
The fruits of the hybrid are characterized by the presence of a dense, not prone to cracking peel, due to which they have excellent keeping quality and can be transported over long distances without losing their presentation.
Yoshta is great for fresh consumption, as well as for cooking preserves, compotes, jams and preserves. For long-term storage, the fruits are frozen. Subject to the optimal temperature regime, which is –16 ° С, the shelf life of berries can reach one year.
Every year, yoshta is increasingly winning the hearts of domestic gardeners.The culture was fond of its unpretentiousness in leaving, simplicity in cultivation, strong immunity, excellent taste of berries and their excellent keeping quality. Today, more and more farmers are thinking about growing a plant for commercial purposes - on an industrial scale.