Redcurrant planting, care features
To date, there are approximately 150 varieties of currants. In addition to the common bushes with red, black and white berries, varieties with yellow, orange, purple and green fruits are bred. All of them differ in taste and content of useful elements. There are some differences in their landing and care. In this review we will talk about red-fruited currants.
Red currant is a deciduous shrub, which is reckoned with the Kryzhovnikov family. Its bushes grow 1-2 meters high. The branches are strong, with gray or yellowish bark. Leaves have 3-5 lobes with serrations at the edges. Color - saturated, green. The lower leaf portion is lighter than the upper. The surface of the sheet is shiny.
During flowering, in late spring, small brushes appear on the bushes, in which flowers with yellow-green or brown petals are collected. Fruits are formed roundish, spherical, with bright red skin. They have less sweetness in taste than in black berries. The diameter of one fruit is 8–12 mm.
Red currants contain 4–10% sugar. They use it fresh, make jam, jams, fruit drinks from it. In some countries they use it for making puddings, fruit soups, cake toppings, desserts.
Before you start growing redcurrant bushes, you should familiarize yourself with their main characteristics, namely the level of productivity, maturity, ability to withstand dry periods and frosty temperatures.
Did you know? Cultivation of red currants began in Holland in the 5th century. At first it was grown exclusively as an ornamental plant.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
The level of winter hardiness and drought tolerance of berry bushes, first of all, depends on the variety and country of origin. There are varieties that can withstand lowering temperatures to –30 ... –45 ° C, the conditions of the Moscow Region (Ural Beauty, Ural Lights, Scarlet Dawn, Vika, Yonker van Tets, Gift of Summer).
If we compare the level of winter hardiness with black currant, then the red one is higher. It should be borne in mind that the root system of the described bush is very deep, so the plant needs abundant watering so that it does not suffer from a lack of moisture. The berry culture is "experiencing" bad periods in dry periods.
Productivity and fruiting
The level of productivity and fruiting time depend on the cultivated variety. When selecting varietal specimens, it is better to pay attention to shrubs that bring at least 5-6 kg of fruit per season. All redcurrant varieties are divided into those that bear fruit in the early times (Victoria, Kristalnaya, Pervenets, Serpentin), middle (Versailles red, Rose, Buzhansky, Gazelle) and later (Valentinovka, Marmeladnitsa, Dutch red, Lapland). Choosing them for planting should take into account climatic conditions and personal preferences.
Did you know? At the beginning of the twentieth century, authorities in the United States issued a ban on the cultivation of currant and gooseberry shrubs, as they were carriers of the fungus Cronartiumribicola, which poses a danger to pine trees. Growing has been banned for 60 years.
The formation of fruits begins in the second year after planting. The berries of the described culture are formed on bouquet branches and gloves. The most abundant fruiting is observed in shoots that are 2–4 years old. Pollination occurs with the help of insects. In terms of fruiting occurs earlier than blackcurrant.Productivity increases gradually, as the plants grow older.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The positive sides of red currant include:
- appetizing appearance of fruits;
- early formation of berries;
- increased winter hardiness;
- the ability of the fruit to tolerate transportation well;
- unwillingness of berries to fall;
- strong immunity.
- Among the shortcomings are noted:
- crushing berries;
- the formation of a large number of shoots;
- exactingness to the composition of the soil.
Variety Selection for Growing
Selection of red currant varieties is not an easy task, since you need to choose from a wide range, from several hundred. When making a selection of berry bushes, it is necessary to familiarize themselves with their detailed description, basic characteristics, preferences for soil composition, and recommendations for care. It is important to pay attention to whether the variety is suitable for cultivation in certain climatic conditions.
Among the varieties that are most often grown in summer cottages:
- Alpha. The fruits of this varietal specimen of Russian selection ripen in the medium term. Bushes reach medium growth, sprawling. Berries are combined in clusters. They are large - 0.9–1.5 g in weight, rounded in shape, with light red skin. Characterized by a sweet and sour taste (rated by tasters at 4.7 points). Among the advantages of Alpha currant are good winter hardiness, resistance to the pathogen of the sphere library, self-fertility and a high level of productivity - 7.2–16.4 t / ha or 1.8–4.1 kg from the bush.
- Vika. A variety of medium early ripening. Forms not too tall bushes. Crohn - sprawling, branches - thick, with pubescence. Berries weigh 0.5-0.8 g. They are rounded in shape and purple in color. In the taste of berries there is a lot of sweetness and a small amount of acid. The productivity of shrubs is 19.3 tons per 1 ha. They tolerate low temperatures well and resist the pathogens of the sphere library and anthracnose.
- Dutch red. Brings berries in the late period. It features powerful bushes. Berries are formed weighing up to 1 g, pear-shaped. The skin is light shades of red. The taste of the berries is sour (score - 3.5 points). Shrub productivity is 12–15 t / ha or 4–5 kg / bush. Currant of this variety has a strong immunity, tolerates winters well.
- Jonker Van Thets. A variety of Dutch breeding. It is characterized by an early ripening period and a high level of productivity - up to 6.5 kg / bush, up to 16 t / ha. It is characterized by drought resistance and frost resistance, good resistance to fungal infections. On average, the height of the bushes is 1.5–1.7 m. The fruits weigh 0.7-0.8 g. They have a red color, a sweet and sour taste.
- Houghton Castle. High-yielding variety of English selection. It bears fruit in the medium term. They are small, weigh 0.5 g each. Their skin has a bright red color. Very tasty (rating - 4.5 points). The positive characteristics of the variety include good survival in conditions of frosty temperatures and dry periods, a high level of productivity, self-fertility.
- Beloved. The variety was bred by Belarusian breeders. Fruits - medium ripening. Bushes are small. Fruits weigh up to 0.9 g, are distinguished by juiciness, high taste data (rating - 4.9–5 points), ability to tolerate transportation well. The variety is frost-resistant, self-fertile and high-yielding - one bush gives 12 kg of berries. Good resistance to fungal diseases.
- Rondom. High-yielding variety with late fruits. Its productivity reaches 8-10 kg per bush. Berries with a dark red skin weigh 0.6-0.7 g each. Their taste characteristics are very high (a rating of 5 points). The fruits are well transported and stored. The positive characteristics of the variety include high winter hardiness, compactness of shrubs.
- Ural beauty. During fruiting, it forms tasty fruits weighing 1–1.7 g (rated at 5 points), which are well transported and stored.Variety productivity is 11.7 t / ha (3.5–15.5 kg / bush). Shrubs are 61% self-fertile, they are not attacked by such harmful insects as fire flakes, sawflies and are practically not affected by the sferoteka.
Features of planting seedlings in spring, autumn
In order to successfully cultivate redcurrant bushes, it is necessary to choose the right place, observe the timing and planting technology, and prepare the soil and seedlings.
It is recommended to place the berry culture in the ground either in the spring - in the middle or end of April, or in the first month of autumn. Autumn landing is more preferable. However, it is important not to be late with the deadlines, because with late planting, the seedling will not have time to take root and will not be able to survive the winter. If during the first autumn month it was not possible to plant, it is better to place the seedlings in cold conditions (cellar, dig in the ground) and save them until spring.
Currant shrubs show the best growth and development in chernozem, loamy, sandy loamy, humus-rich soils with neutral or low acidity levels. The level of groundwater in the area where berry bushes are planned to be planted should be no closer than 1.5 m to the soil surface.
Important! Despite the unpretentiousness and good adaptation to environmental conditions, red currants will not grow on a cold, densely shaded, moist and swampy area.
Choosing the right place
The best place to cultivate redcurrant shrubs is a well-lit and ventilated slope on the south side. From the north, it should be sheltered from the winds. If you grow shrubs in the shade, then their productivity will be reduced, the berries will form small and very acidic.
Selection of seedlings, how to prepare
For planting, you should choose seedlings that are 1 or 2 years old. If you plan to plant them immediately after purchase, it is better to choose with an open rhizome. So you can well examine his condition. If planting material is planned to be stored for some time, then it is necessary to purchase the one that is in the container.
High-quality seedlings should have 2-3 shoots, a strong root system 20 cm long, a healthy root neck.
Before proceeding to planting, all leaves should be removed from the planting material. The root system is recommended to be placed for 2-3 hours in a bucket of water.
Planting planting material in the fall is correct as follows:
- For 2-3 weeks, dig holes with a depth of 40 cm and a width of 50-60 cm. Their distance from each other depends on the cultivated variety. For compact bushes, holes need to be dug at a distance of 1–1.25 m, row spacing should be left at 1.25 m. For spreading plants, the distance between pits and between rows should be 1.5 m. 1 m intervals
- Fertilize: compost (humus, peat) - 8–10 kg, superphosphate (150–200 g), potassium sulfate (30–40 g), wood ash (1 tbsp.).
- On the day of planting, pour a small earthen mound at the bottom of the pit.
- Set the roots of the seedling on it. Distribute them evenly. The barrel can be placed flat or tilted.
- Fill the hole completely with soil.
- Make a seal.
- To pour, spending 10 liters of water. It is better to pour water into a groove previously dug in a circle, retreating 20 cm from the trunk.
- Lay a layer of mulch from humus and peat.
- Trim the shoots - it is necessary to leave 10-15 cm with 3-4 kidneys.
If planting is carried out in the spring, then the site and pits must be prepared in the fall. In this case, the soil is fertilized only with organic fertilizers. Phosphorus and potassium-containing mixtures are introduced several weeks before the seedling is placed in the ground.
Important! The root neck of red currant should be deepened by 5-6 cm. This will stimulate the growth of lateral roots and shoots of substitution.
Seasonal Care Rules
Redcurrant plants require standard care, as with most berry bushes. It includes regular watering, fertilizing, loosening, mulching, weeding, pruning, preventive treatments against ailments and harmful insects.
Before rooting, the seedling should be moistened 2 times in 7 days. The fact that the roots have strengthened will be indicated by the growth of the plant, the appearance of young leaves. In the future, the amount of irrigation is reduced to 1 time in 1-1.5 weeks. Intensive watering is required during the fruit filling period, after flowering. Watering must be combined with cultivations that help improve the flow of moisture and oxygen to the roots. The procedure is carried out to a depth of 6-8 cm.
Since one of the main reasons for the development of diseases in the garden and the propagation of pests is the thickening of vegetation, it is important to remove weeds in a timely manner. They not only become the “habitat” of infections, but also “take” the necessary nutrients, moisture, and moisture from the shrubs from the sun. Weed removal must always be done with the root.
Mulching with straw, sawdust, pine needles, peat, humus, mowed grass can reduce the number of moisture, cultivation and weeding. Mulch maintains the desired level of moisture in the soil, inhibits the growth of weeds.
Important! Since red currant does not grow well if there is a lot of chlorine in the soil, fertilizer complexes should be selected, given this feature - this element should not be in them or it may be present in small quantities.
In April, when the soil is still wet, it is recommended to fertilize the bushes with urea (15 g / m²) or ammonium nitrate (25 g / m²). After the plant fades, you need to make a liquid solution of mullein (1: 6) or bird droppings (1:12) in volume - a bucket under the bush. In the fall, after the crop is harvested, phosphorus and potassium-containing fertilizers are required. At this time, superphosphate (100–120 g / m²), potassium chloride (30–40 g / m²) can be added. There are also special ready-made mixtures for feeding currant bushes, which you can choose in a specialized store.
Trimming and shaping a bush
Shrubs need to be cut. If it is produced correctly, then you can increase productivity and reduce the risk of developing diseases and insect attacks. It is worth forming a bush in such a way that it always has from 15 to 20 shoots of different ages. Every year, you should leave 2-3 full branches that appeared in the current year. The remaining shoots should be cut off. Sanitary pruning is carried out in the early spring of each year, when the process of sap flow has not yet begun.
Sick, dry, broken, bent, shoots directed inside the crown are removed. Since the fruit buds of the redcurrant bushes are located at the base of the annual shoots and on the annulus of both young and old branches, it is rare to rejuvenate pruning. Old branches are considered to be those who are 6-8 years old - you can identify them by a very dark color.
Fig. 1. Currant pruning: a - annual seedling; b - a biennial bush; c, d - shortening of shoots. Fig. 2. Currant bush before anti-aging pruning (a), after it (b) and pruning of a neglected bush (c).
They must be completely removed in the autumn, after harvesting the fruits. Optionally, in the summer, you can pinch - in order to activate the laying of substitution shoots, pinch the top of the green branches. To avoid infection, pruning must be done with a sanitized tool. The places of cuts should be treated with an antiseptic, for example, copper sulphate and coated with garden varieties or RanNet paste (in accordance with the instructions).
Reproduction of red currant is carried out in three ways:
- Cuttings (lignified, green).
- By dividing the bush.
The first method is resorted to in early spring. It must be carried out as follows:
- To loosen the soil well.
- Then dig grooves 5-8 cm deep under strong shoots, which are 1-2 years old. The length should equal the length of the branch.
- Lay shoots in furrows.
- Pin to the ground with hooks made of wood or iron.
- Sprinkle with earth, leaving the tops intact.
- After the shoots reach a length of 10–12 cm, they are topped up to a height of 10–12 cm.
- Throughout the whole period of rooting, pouring earth several times.
- At the end of September, separate the cuttings from the mother plant and plant them in the area where they will constantly grow.
An easier way is to cuttings with lignified shoots. It is carried out according to this scheme:
- After autumn pruning, select strong shoots and cut from them cuttings 18–20 cm long with the upper straight cut above the kidney and the lower oblique under the kidney. Each propagation material must have a minimum of 4 kidneys.
- To sustain cuttings in any root-forming agent.
- Place in loose light soil for rooting at an angle of 45 °.
- Regularly moisten the soil.
- After rooting, transplant to a permanent place.
Green cuttings are harvested in June. The shoot is cut together with a part of the branch on which it grows, and a stalk of 7-8 cm is cut from it. They are placed on rooting in loose soil, deepened by 3-4 cm. The green part should be located vertically, part of the mother plant - horizontally. They moisturize to a depth of 5-7 cm. Before rooting, watering is carried out daily, then - every other day. A transplant to a permanent place is carried out in a year.
When carrying out propagation by dividing the bush, it is necessary to cut off all the old shoots from the plant and dig it out. Then divide the root system into 2-3 parts. Immediately land each of the units in a permanent place. After planting, trim young shoots to 15–20 cm. Plants that have been planted should be watered (as necessary).
Do the bush need pollinators
Whether to plant several varieties of red currant in the garden that will pollinate each other depends on which varietal specimen is chosen for planting. There are self-fertile plants. This, for example, Houghton Castle, Red Cross, Alpha, Ural beauty, Scarlet Dawn. There are also partially self-fertile (Ural Lights) and non-self-fertile varieties (Jonker Van Tets, Sugar). These will require planting nearby pollinating plants and attracting bees. But these must be varieties that bloom at the same time.
Diseases and Pests
With errors during planting and care, red currants can be affected by diseases and harmful insects.
Most often, berry shrubs have the following diseases:
|Title||Symptoms||Prevention and treatment|
|White spotting (septoria)|
|Powdery mildew (sferotek)|
|Growth ("witch's broom", terry)|
|Rust (glass, columnar)|
Did you know? The name currants comes from the old Russian word "to curry." It means "emit a strong smell." The plant was so named because of the sharp aroma that comes from the leaves.
Pests hazardous to redcurrant:
|Title||Symptoms||Prevention and treatment|
|Gall leaf aphid|
|Fire||eaten flowers and ovaries|
Preparing for wintering, how to shelter
Red frost is not afraid of severe frosts, but it does not tolerate spring frosts. Therefore, for the winter it should be covered with agrofibre, which is removed in the spring after the warm days are established. Before the winter period, the bushes must be bent, for example, crushed with stones, dug, wrapped with insulation. So they will be warmed by the earth and snow. They must first be trimmed. The soil needs to be fertilized.
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting red currants, as a rule, is carried out at a time - after the fruits have ripened and become the same color and size as stated in the description of the cultivated variety. You should not delay with the harvesting of berries, as over time their taste and quality deteriorate. You need to collect the fruits in the morning, when they dry out from dew, or in the evening, when the sun "sets".
Berries that have been harvested with wet skin will deteriorate more quickly. The collection must be carried out in containers with a volume of 3-6 kg, in which the fruits will be stored or transported. Otherwise, they may wrinkle and start juice.
Harvesting is done by hand, the berries are picked together with the stem. If the fruits are planned to be transported, then they must be collected in a state of technical maturity in clusters. They are cooled before transport. The best packaging for transportation is 8 kg.
To keep the berries longer, they need to be frozen.
Currants are stored in cold conditions. Shelf life in the refrigerator is up to 14 days. When stored at a temperature of + 1 ° C - up to 60 days. The term of use of the frozen product is 1 year. Thaw before cooking it is not necessary. When frozen, all useful substances are preserved.
Thus, red currant is an appetizing and healthy berry, which is recommended to be grown in country and household plots. If you choose a good place for it, comply with the timing and planting technology, as well as provide regular care, the plant will delight you with delicious crops for 30–35 years.