Tamerlan early currant: variety characteristics and cultivation characteristics
One of the famous varieties of blackcurrant, which is actively grown in many suburban areas, is the Tamerlan variety. Its large bushes adorn the territory of the garden, and at the stage of ripening, a large number of large berries with a smooth matte surface appear on them. A detailed description and characteristics of the variety, especially its planting and cultivation, as well as the subtleties of harvesting and ways to deal with possible difficulties, are further discussed in the article.
Tamerlan blackcurrant bush does not have distinctive external features compared to other varieties of culture. The plant consists of many perennial shoots, on which the clusters ripen with berries.
Did you know? In the XI century. in Russia, blackcurrant was grown only in monasteries and was called the “monastery berry”.
Characteristics of Tamerlan varieties:
- The bush is tall - its height reaches 130 cm by the age of 6 years.
- The branches of the plant are medium spread, so the diameter of the bush rarely exceeds 1.3 m.
- The shoots are thin and painted gray with a yellow blush, without pubescence. With age, the branches of the bush become lignified.
- In the second year after planting, the central stem begins to branch, forming many actively growing lateral branches, on which fruits will subsequently form.
- The buds of the bush are located on a small stalk at an angle to the shoot and have an ovoid shape.
- The leaves are large and consist of 5 pointed lobes. The middle lobe is the largest, and the lateral lobes are widely spaced. On the edge are blunt and small teeth having a “tip” of white color.
- The leathery and dense surface of the leaf plate is covered with numerous wrinkles and is concave along the middle vein. The leaves of the bush are painted dark green.
- The leaves are attached to the branch using a thick petiole of medium length, and the edges of the leaf plate are folded down.
- The flowering period lasts about 2 weeks and depends on the weather conditions in the region. Multi-flowered brushes up to 7 cm long, having the shape of a cylinder, form on the plant.
- The flowers of the bush are small in size and have a bell-shaped shape, and their petals are painted in a yellowish color. The sepals and limbs of the tubular calyx are red, and the peduncle is thick.
Tamerlan blackcurrant was bred in the Tambov region of Russia by breeders of the I.V. Michurin All-Russian Research Institute of Horticulture. The authors of the new species are T. S. Zvyagina and T. Zhidekhina, and the aim of the experiment was to obtain a new crop with a high yield, stable immunity to diseases and good frost resistance.
Important! A young bush of Tamerlan currant begins to bear fruit the next year after planting.
Tamerlan currant is the result of crossing varieties Ojebyn and Black pearls, and it was brought to the State Register in 2004. Since then, this variety has received many good reviews from gardeners and is actively grown in large and small summer cottages.
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening time, yield
One of the main positive qualities due to which the Tamerlan currant has gained popularity among gardeners is the high productivity of the variety. By the time the crop ripens, clusters of beautiful berries are formed on the bush, possessing valuable commodity characteristics.
Description of fruits and yields of Tamerlan variety:
- Berries are large. Outside they are covered with smooth and dense black skin.
- The currant is round, and the mass of one berry is 1.3–2.4 g.
- The fruits have a rich sweet and sour taste, which was rated at 4.6 points out of 5 on a tasting scale.
- The dense pulp of currant contains the average number of ovoid seeds.
- The variety belongs to the early, and ripe berries can be picked in the first half of July.
- The ripening of fruits is uniform, starts from the base of the brush, and its period is 6–9 days.
- The yield of the variety is about 12.9 t / ha or 3.9 kg from each bush.
In addition to an attractive appearance, the berries of Tamerlan currant have a rich chemical composition and contain such components:
- soluble solids - 17.2%;
- sugar - 9.8%;
- acid - 3.4%
- ascorbic acid - 146.0 mg / 100 g;
- R-active substances - 957.0 mg / 100 g;
- pectin substances - 2.1%.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The advantages of the variety include:
- high productivity;
- excellent product characteristics of fruits;
- universality of the use of berries;
- good immunity to diseases;
- high transportability;
- excellent winter hardiness;
- relatively early harvest ripening;
- useful chemical composition of berries.
- Tamerlan cons are listed below:
- tendency to be affected by a kidney tick;
- large bush sizes requiring a lot of free space.
The cultivation of black currant Tamerlan has no distinctive features compared to the cultivation of other varieties of culture. First you need to purchase healthy and strong seedlings, as well as the proper planting procedure.
Did you know? Essential oils accumulate in the leaves of blackcurrant, so they are often used in preservation and cooking as a fragrant spice.
Further care of the bushes consists in timely watering and top dressing, annual pruning and proper preparation of plants for wintering.
Seat selection and landing
So that young currant seedlings take root on the site and later delighted with a generous harvest of ripe berries, they need to choose a suitable place.
- ample sunlight - the bushes grow well in open space or in small partial shade, but in a too shaded place the yield of the variety will decrease;
- fertile and light soilweak or neutral acidity - it provides the roots of plants with nutrients, and also passes air and solar heat well to them;
- groundwater occurrence at a depth of not less than 75 cm from the soil surface - currants love well-moistened soil, but with moisture stagnation, its roots begin to rot;
- cold wind protection - in a draft, the immunity of the bushes is weakened, so they bear fruit worse and are more often affected by diseases and pests.
Tamerlan currant seedlings are recommended to be bought only in a specialized nursery. Young bushes should have a branched root system containing 2-3 main roots, 1-2 shoots and a healthy appearance. Better on the site are rooted biennial specimens, the height of which reached 40 cm.
Before planting planting material, it is necessary to prepare the site by performing the following actions:
- dig the soil at least 3 weeks before planting, removing all plant debris from it;
- prepare landing holes with a depth of about 50 cm and the same diameter - they should be located at a distance of at least 1.3 m from each other;
- pour 1 bucket of compost, 200 g of superphosphate and 40 g of wood ash into each cavity, covering the nutrient mixture from above with a 10 cm thick layer of garden soil.
Important! Tamerlan currant can be planted throughout the growing season, but plants planted in late August are better to plant.
Immediately before planting, it is recommended that the roots of the seedling be dipped in water for several hours, and then dipped in a liquid mass of clay and water.
Step-by-step instructions for planting Tamerlan currant:
- Pour 5 liters of warm water to the bottom of the landing pit.
- Place the roots of the seedling in the recess at an angle of 45 ° so that the root neck is at a depth of 4-5 cm from the ground.
- Spread the roots evenly on the surface of the mound of nutrient soil so that they do not bend.
- Sprinkle the planting pit with seedlings in loose soil, slightly compacting it from above with your hands.
- Water each young bush with 10 liters of warm water.
- After absorbing the liquid, mulch the earth around the plant with peat or dry sawdust.
To annually collect a generous crop of healthy and delicious berries, you must perform the following actions:
- regularly water the plants throughout the summer so that the soil around the bushes is always moderately moist - about 30 liters of warm water is spent on each bush, and it is recommended that the irrigation procedure be done at least once every 5 days;
- in March, before the buds appear, 80 g of ammonium nitrate and 50 g of urea are introduced under each bush - after which they dig the soil around the currant;
- as weeds appear, they need to be removed, and the soil around the plants loosened to a depth of 5 cm - this procedure is best done after watering;
- mulch the surface of the soil on beds with currants peat or straw - under the protective layer of mulch, the earth remains wet and loose longer;
- in early June, each bush of the Tamerlan variety fertilize 15 kg of humus - this top dressing contributes to the formation of a large number of ovaries;
- at the stage of berry ripening, the bushes are sprayed with a solution of 10 l of water, 5 g of potassium permanganate, 40 g of iron sulfate and 3 g of boric acid - this nutrient solution promotes the timely ripening of fruits;
- in late September, currants are fed with mineral fertilizers - 20 g of potassium sulfate, 50 g of superphosphate and 200 g of wood ash are consumed for each plant.
Pest and Disease Control
Subject to the listed recommendations for planting and care, Tamerlan currant exhibits stable immunity, therefore it is rarely affected by diseases and pests.
Did you know? About 3300 berries are placed in 1 kg of blackcurrant.
But in adverse conditions or with improper agricultural technology, such infections and insects can threaten the bushes:
- Anthracnose. Signs of this fungal disease are small brown spots with convex tubercles on the surface of the leaves. Over time, the infection spreads to the entire bush, and the leaves begin to turn yellow and dry. All parts of the plant affected by the fungus are cut off, and the currants are sprayed with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid.
- Powdery Mildew The causative agent is a fungus, and its appearance on the plant can be detected by the characteristic white powdery coating. At first it covers only the leaves, but soon spreads to the fruits, causing their deformation and shedding. For the treatment of currants, a solution of iodine is used (1 bottle of the product per 10 liters of water) or “Fitosporin” - the resulting mixture must be abundantly sprayed with plants.
- Kidney tick. This small insect infects the fruit buds of the bush before flowering, as a result of which they become rounded and look swollen. As a result of the attack, ovary pests do not form, and the yield of currants decreases. To get rid of the kidney tick, you need to remove all the affected kidneys on the bush, and then process the plantings with sulfur-containing preparations (for example, Kinmiks).
- Fire. This gray butterfly lays eggs in currant flowers, and the appeared larvae feed on the pulp of berries. When a pest appears on the bush, a thin web is visible, covering the shoots and fruits, as well as damaged berries, which are not suitable for transportation and storage. A diseased plant cannot be treated, but the appearance of a butterfly can be prevented by covering the soil around the bushes with a layer of roofing material. Thanks to this shelter, butterflies will not be able to get out of the soil where they hibernated, so they will die.
- Fruit sawfly. The larvae of this pest can destroy the entire crop of black currant, because they eat berries from the inside. The fruits change shape and show off prematurely, and the caterpillars that have fallen into the soil move to healthy bushes. To stop the spread of infection, you need to collect all the affected fruits, and spray the currant with any insecticide.
You can prevent the occurrence of these problems with the help of simple preventive measures:
- Autumn digging around the bushes;
- weed weeding;
- garbage collection and destruction of plant debris on currant beds;
- regular pruning of plants;
- the choice of a well-lit place for planting seedlings;
- compliance with watering and dressing schedules;
- loosening the soil around the bushes.
Important! To prevent the occurrence of parasites and infections, in early spring, before flowering, currants are treated several times with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid with an interval of 10 days.
Trimming and shaping a bush
Tall bushes of Tamerlan blackcurrant need to be pruned. This procedure not only helps to give the bush a beautiful shape, but also contributes to the uniform ripening of fruits, and also is the prevention of the appearance of diseases and pests.
Features pruning bushes:
- in the spring before the start of sap flow, dry and damaged shoots are removed so that they do not pull the juices out of the bush;
- the pruning procedure must be performed with a sharp secateurs, and the places of cuts on thick branches should be treated with garden varieties;
- in the summer, the branches remaining after sanitary pruning are shortened by 5 eyes to stimulate further branching of the plant;
- at the end of September, they carry out forming pruning, removing underdeveloped stems, as well as branches growing inside the bush - this helps to give the bush the desired shape;
- in the fall it is also recommended to carry out anti-aging pruning, leaving shoots of 3-4 years old on the plant - it is on them that berries are formed;
- on each bush you need to leave up to 15 stems, and the remaining shoots are recommended to be cut.
In order for the plant to survive the winter, and with the first spring heat began to grow actively, it is necessary to properly prepare it for the cold. It is recommended to start such preparation after harvesting, i.e. in mid-August or early September.
Did you know? Ripe blackcurrant berries are used in the food industry to produce natural dye.
To prepare the Tamerlan currant for wintering, perform such actions:
- clean the soil around the bushes from fallen leaves, plant debris and debris;
- with insufficient rainfall, plants are irrigated once every 7 days, spending 20-30 l of water for each of them - while the soil should get wet to a depth of about 50 cm;
- dig the earth around the bushes to destroy the larvae of wintering pests in the soil and improve the fruiting of plants next year;
- at the end of October, the currant trunk is sprinkled with earth, forming a small mound, and the soil on the beds is mulched with dry straw or a layer of peat;
- after the temperature drops to a minus mark, the branches of the plant are tied with a rope in a spiral, pulling them into a bundle, and the edges of the rope are fixed on the top of the bush with a clothespin;
- after the snow falls, it is thrown onto the branches of the plant, covering the currant completely - this helps to further protect the bush from frost and the cold winter wind.
Video: preparing currant bushes for winter
Harvesting and storage
Thanks to the dense peel, Tamerlan berries are well stored and can withstand transportation over long distances.But to increase the shelf life of the product, it is recommended to use it for the preparation of canned preparations or to freeze fresh fruits in the freezer.
Important! It is recommended to wash blackcurrant only immediately before consumption, so that the fruits do not get sour.
Features of the collection and storage of the harvest of Tamerlan currant:
- berries can be removed from the bush only after they have turned black;
- harvesting fruits is recommended in the early morning or evening in dry and slightly cloudy weather so that they do not become wet from moisture;
- the berries are carefully separated from the stalks, and then stack them in a shallow and wide tray with a layer of 2-3 cm;
- a container with fresh currants is immediately placed in the refrigerator or basement;
- for storage and transportation only fruits of the correct form with a smooth and elastic skin without traces of mechanical damage are selected;
- it is recommended to transport currants immediately after its collection, i.e. during storage the berries partially lose their shape and elasticity;
- at a temperature of about 0 ° C, fresh currants can be stored for 1 month - for this, the berries are packed in a plastic bag, air is released from it and tightly tied, and then the fruits are placed in the refrigerator.