Blackcurrant Grape - features and characteristics
Probably, in every garden this popular plant grows with incredibly tasty and healthy fruits. Black currant is so loved by many gardeners for its relatively early ripening and ease of care. And it easily multiplies and takes root in a new place, so in a few years it is quite possible to grow a whole currant garden.
Description of blackcurrant grape variety
The grape variety is represented by a medium-sized bush with straight branches.. The bush is moderately sprawling, of medium density. The leaves are light green, wrinkled, resemble grape leaves. Medium sized flowers with pale petals. The berries are quite large, round, brownish-black in color, located 10 on each brush.
Bushes of grape currant are quite winter-resistant, although in very frosty winters individual shoots may freeze. This variety is also quite resistant to diseases and pests.
Blackcurrant Vinogradnaya was bred at St. Petersburg Agrarian University by crossing the varieties Chaika and Pamyat Michurin and since 1980 it has been in the state variety test. Since 1994, a description of this variety has appeared in the state register for the Volga-Vyatka region (Kirov region).
Did you know? The highest concentration of ascorbic acid in currants is contained in the period of full ripening, but after two weeks 70% of vitamins decompose, so the berries must be picked immediately as soon as they ripen.
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening time, yield
In late June, currant bushes are covered with brownish-black berries. They are quite large in size, rounded in shape, average weight is about 1.5 g. The skin is very thin, matte, the separation of berries is wet. When overripe, the berries may crack. On the brush up to 7 cm long, an average of 10 berries of the same size are located. They look like grapes, hence the name. The fruits of currant ripen very amicably, therefore this variety does not have small unripe berries on the edge of the brush.
Currant Grape as one of the representatives of black currant, is an indispensable source of vitamins. More nutrients than currants are found only in vitamin preparations, but not one vegetable or fruit can not surpass it in this. Currant is a champion in the content of vitamin C, which is indispensable for the immune system and has a beneficial effect on the body as a whole. It helps remove toxins and prevents the appearance of cancer cells.
Provitamin A or beta-carotene is also found in large quantities in blackcurrant berries. His main task is to care for eyesight, but he, like vitamin C, activates the body's defenses.Also, Grape currant is rich in other vitamins, minerals, essential oils and organic acids. And also its berries contain volatile, tannins and, of course, pectin, which is indispensable for the proper functioning of the intestines.
Many people like blackcurrant grape because of its early ripening. She gives vitamins at a time when there are still so few fruits and berries, namely in the second half of June, near the end of the month. Her yield is high, but if you take good care of the currants, you can pick up much more berries. On average, each bush can produce about 4 kg of berries per season.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Grape currant has a number of advantages common to all varieties of black currant, but it also has its own characteristics.
- The main advantages of the variety are:
- high content of vitamins, minerals and biologically active substances;
- stable harvest with any care;
- early ripening;
- good winter hardiness;
- resistance of flowers to spring frosts;
- resistance to kidney mites, anthracnose and powdery mildew;
- the ability of berries to gelling;
- unpretentiousness in leaving;
- very sweet dessert flavor;
- ability to adapt to any soil and any climate;
- attractive appearance of berries;
- simultaneous ripening;
- ability to not fall off for a long time.
- The disadvantages are not as many as the advantages, but they are also present:
- wet separation of berries, which makes them unsuitable for industrial production;
- cracking of berries when overripe.
Despite the fact that grape blackcurrant is unpretentious in care, active correct agricultural technology can increase its productivity several times. In order for the bushes to grow strong, healthy and give a stable crop of berries, you need to find a good place to plant, plant in accordance with all the rules and take good care of them.
Did you know? Blackcurrant is resistant to any climate, so it grows on all continents except Australia and Antarctica.
Seat selection and landing
Blackcurrant can grow on different soils, but prefers light, clayey ones. Currants grow well in the sun, but to plant it you need to choose places that are shaded for some time during the day. Bushes are also good for moist soils, but places where water stagnates for a long time are not suitable for planting.
And you also need to make sure that the groundwater is not too close. They should be no closer than 1.5 m from the surface, because the currant roots sometimes reach 2 m.If the soil is very acidic, it should be sprinkled with lime. And also a month before planting bushes, it is recommended to apply 4-6 kg of organic fertilizers and dig up the ground.
It is better to plant currant bushes in the fall, at this time they take root well, and in winter they undergo hardening at a low temperature, so that with the advent of spring they begin to actively grow and form young shoots.
Planting blackcurrant grape consists of the following stages:
- Dig holes 50 cm deep and in diameter. They should be at a distance of about 2 m from each other.
- Two weeks before planting, add 6–8 kg of compost, 300 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potassium salt to the well.
- The bushes need to be planted together so that one person can hold them, and the second - to fill up with soil, carefully trampling.
- And immediately you need to pour every bush 2-3 bucket of water.
- After the water is absorbed, mulch the soil with a layer of peat or compost about 5 cm thick.
- Cut off the entire upper part, leaving only 2–4 kidneys.
If the currant is planted in the fall, it must necessarily be spudded so that it normally tolerates the winter. And lay a layer of mulch up to 8 cm thick on top. It is better to plant the bushes at an angle of 45 ° to avoid their accidental pulling out, while they have not yet taken root in a new place. If you can’t wait for a long time until the bush grows so much that you can transplant a part, or don’t want to buy ready-made seedlings in the nursery, you can plant the currant with cuttings: green and lignified.
Solid cuttings, which are already lignified, must be prepared in the fall and planted in early spring in trenches specially prepared for this, at a distance of 15 cm from each other. A mixture of soil with humus is poured into the trench in equal parts. In autumn, seedlings can be transplanted to a new place. Both green and lignified cuttings are harvested the same way: cut pieces of shoots 15 cm at a distance of 1 cm from the upper bud and 0.5 cm from the lower one at an angle.
Important! Green cuttings are planted in the summer, but they need to be very well looked after and protected from heat and wind.
Further planting of rooted cuttings in a permanent place does not differ from planting a bush. This blackcurrant variety is self-fertile, therefore, to get a full crop, one bush will be enough, but in order to collect even more berries in the summer, it is better to plant several of them, and preferably different varieties.
Since blackcurrant grows very quickly, intensive care can significantly affect its growth and yield. The soil under the bushes must be loosened at least 3-4 times a year.The first time this should be done in early spring, then when the plant begins to actively grow and develop, the third time - in the fall after harvest, and again in the winter during fertilizer application.
Loosening the soil close to the base of the bush should not be deeper than 8 cm, but between the rows, the depth of cultivation can reach 12 cm. Also, do not forget to remove weeds and dried, diseased and broken branches so that they do not interfere with the plant to develop properly. Watering shrubs is necessary only during planting, and then you need to look at the situation. If the summer is rainy enough, you don’t need to water additionally, and if it is dry, 1-2 buckets of water per week under each bush will help the plant not dry out.
Fertilize bushes, in addition to fertilizing during planting, preferably every year. For the best wintering, in the first year in the fall, 6–7 kg of manure or compost is introduced under the bush. In the second year, mineral fertilizers should be added to organic fertilizers. In the third year, mineral fertilizers are not required, and in the fourth and fifth you can do without organics. Instead, 250–300 g of the mineral mixture is added. In subsequent years, it is worth alternating fertilizing with minerals and organics.
Also during the growing season it is necessary to apply liquid top dressing, during flowering or ovary growth - spray with potassium permanganate or boric acid, diluting 1.5 g of the drug in a bucket of water. These measures help increase productivity and improve plant health.
Important! It is better to spray on a cloudy day to avoid evaporation of the solution.
Pest and Disease Control
Although grape black currant has quite good reviews on pest resistance, there are among them those that affect all varieties, without exception. This is a fire-aperture, aphids and a glass-case.To fight aphids at the first signs of its appearance, it is necessary to spray the tops of the shoots with a solution of laundry soap or laundry detergent. Or you can sprinkle with a decoction of wood ash, for this you need to take 300 g of ash in a bucket of water.
So that the green caterpillars of the fire do not annoy the young shoots of currant, it is necessary to destroy their larvae. To do this, in April, before the buds open, mulch the soil around the bushes with a thick layer of compost, humus or sawdust. Larvae wintering under the bushes will not be able to crawl out and die. So that the glass box will leave your garden forever and did not spoil currant leavesthat dry out on top of the shoots because of it, these tops need to be cut together with the old shoots.
It is also useful in the spring, before buds open, to spray the bushes with very hot water (up to 90 ° C), the plants will not suffer from this, but the pest larvae will die and the bushes will heal. The main diseases of black, red and white currants are anthracnose and powdery mildew, but the Grape variety is quite resistant to them, especially with proper care.
But still, if the plant became sick, red and brown spots appeared on the leaves and over time they withered and fell off - these are signs of anthracnose. This is a fungal disease that needs to be treated immediately. It is recommended to spray the plant with Bordeaux liquid (dissolve 100 g of the substance in 10 l of water).For the treatment of powdery mildew (white loose coating on the leaves and berries), you need to take a bottle of iodine (5%) and dilute it in 10 liters of water. It is advisable to spray currants with this solution twice with an interval of 3-4 days.
To cure orange rust on the leaves, you need to treat them with Bordeaux liquid 4 times at intervals of 10 days. When combating diseases and pests, you need to remember that well-groomed bushes are much less susceptible to them, so you must not forget to weed them in time, remove dry damaged branches, water them in drought and feed them with mineral fertilizers, wood ash and a solution from nettle and dandelion infusion.
Trimming and shaping a bush
In order for the bushes of the Grape Currant to bear fruit well for as long as possible, they must be cut periodically. The first pruning is carried out immediately after planting - shorten all shoots, leave small branches with 2-3 buds on each.
So that the bush does not overgrow strongly, every year in autumn it is necessary to remove excess shoots. In the first autumn after planting, all shoots are cut off, but over the year the bush grows thanks to young shoots, so in the second autumn it is necessary to cut them, leaving 3-5 the strongest. The remaining shoots are slightly shortened so that the bush grows to the sides.
Fig. 1. Currant pruning: a - annual seedling; b - a biennial bush; c, d - shortening of shoots. Fig. 2. Currant bush before anti-aging pruning (a), after it (b) and pruning of a neglected bush (c).
In the third year they do the same: young shoots are cut off, leaving only 3-5 pieces, the rest are shortened by 2-3 buds. The same trim appears in subsequent years. By 5 years, the bush should contain no more than 15–20 shoots of different ages. From the 6th year, you need to start cutting all the old shoots on which there will still be no berries. Old ones are those that are more than 6 years old.
In addition to pruning to prevent bush thickening, it is necessary to carry out sanitary. Suitable for her at any time of the year. As soon as you notice dry, diseased, damaged or lying on the ground branches, they must immediately be removed. A properly formed grape currant bush will produce a stable crop every year.
Grape black currant tolerates winter well, only the tops of shoots can sometimes freeze. In early spring, they can be trimmed before the buds are formed. If the frost in winter is very severe or there is no snow, it is better to gently currant curls to the ground for the winter, fix the branches below and cover them with cloth. Before wintering, it is imperative to remove fallen leaves, dry branches and mulch from under the bushes so that pests do not decide to winter there.
Harvesting and transportation of crops
You need to collect black currants immediately after its ripening, because if the berries are overripe, they can crack and lose most of the vitamins. It is better to eat fresh currants in order to get the most benefit from it. These berries are stored in the refrigerator not very long, no more than a week, and in special banks the shelf life lasts about a month. If you rub the berries with sugar, they can also be stored for a month. Six months in the freezer.
And berries are often used in the preparation of wine, juices, compotes.
The grapes of blackcurrant grapes must be transported in special containers so that they do not crumple. Due to the natural gelling ability, currants make very tasty jellies and jams from this variety. Currant jam is the best natural cure for colds. In addition, not only berries are useful in currants, but also leaves. If you collect them immediately after flowering and dry, in the winter you can drink aromatic vitamin tea.
Currants can rightfully be considered the champion in the vitamin composition of berries. And it's just the decoration of every garden. The bushes of this useful plant are not whimsical to care for, but if they are well looked after, they will delight you with an even larger crop.