Red currant Rondom: the main characteristics of the variety
For planting red currants, gardeners are increasingly choosing Dutch varieties. One of these varieties is Rhonda. That is what will be discussed in this article.
Description of the variety of red currant Rond
This is one of the best high-yielding redcurrant varieties in Europe. It belongs to varieties of late ripening. Winter-hardy and drought-resistant, but with a lack of moisture it bears fruit worse. A feature of this variety is resistance to powdery mildew and anthracnose, but there is a defeat of Septoria. When tissue damage is quickly restored.
Currant Rond was bred in Holland with the participation of the variety "Versailles red". It has been in state variety testing since 1985. The state register has been included in the Central (Kaluga Region) and Volga-Vyatka (Chuvash Republic) regions since 1995. The most widespread in Europe. In the territory of the former Soviet Union, it is mainly grown on personal plots.
Did you know? From a biological point of view, the closest relative of currant is gooseberry.
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening time, yield
The bush is tall. It reaches a height of 1.5 m. The branches are powerful, but the branching is weak, sparse. The bush is formed by thick annual shoots growing from its base. They replace the old dying branches. But over the years, their growth has stopped.
The leaves are large, dentate, dark green in color, dense and wrinkled. The lower part of the leaf is densely pubescent. Leaves have 5 lobes, the middle of which is elongated. The lateral parts of the leaf are short and have a pointed shape. The base of the sheet is straight.
It blooms from late April to mid-May. Inflorescences are racemose. Medium-sized flowers of light green color with pinkish strokes.
The berries are round in shape, in full ripeness of dark red color, shiny, large, very juicy and fragrant. The fruit mass can reach 0.7 g. Ripe fruits hold on the bush for a long time and do not fall. Tasting score of 4.6 points. The berries contain a huge content of ascorbic acid, which gives the berries a pronounced sour tint. The content of vitamin C is 67 mg.
Berries form in thick and long brushes. On one bunch up to 20 berries can be located. The variety is self-fertile. Productivity is very good (8-10 kg from one bush). Harvesting from early August to September.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Currant Rond in Europe is taken as a standard due to the fact that it has a large number of advantages:
- good yield;
- large fruits and fragrant berries;
- ripe fruits stick to bushes for a long time;
- excellent taste;
- high content of vitamin C;
- winter resistance;
- heat resistance;
- resistance to powdery mildew and anthracnose.
- Like all other varieties, it has some disadvantages:
- poorly propagated by lignified cuttings;
- may be affected by septoria;
- compliance with all agricultural standards is required.
Variety Rondom is quite unpretentious when growing, it is enough to observe agrotechnical norms and rules when growing this plant.
Choosing a landing place
When choosing a seedling planting site, it is necessary to take into account the fact that although this variety is winter hardy, it is very photophilous. Therefore, one must give preference to the sunny area.
The powerful development of the root system of this plant contributes to its drought tolerance and moderate need for moisture. However, it must be remembered that with insufficient water supply, its growth, productivity and winter hardiness worsen.Therefore, you should not choose the height for planting this plant.
Currant does not tolerate the proximity of groundwater, grows well in moist, well-drained soil
The soil suitable for growing Rondoma is neutral acid chernozem, loam, sandy loam or slightly acidic. The plant reacts remarkably to organic and mineral fertilizers.
September is optimal for planting seedlings, but if there is a need to plant it in spring, it is better to do this in mid-April.
Before planting currants, it is necessary to properly prepare the soil. Free the area from weeds, especially perennials, if any. If the soil is sandy, it is necessary to add clay, if sandy loam - mineral matter. This will ensure the "lightness" of the soil. Chalk or limestone (40 kg per one hundredth) is added to acidic ground.
A hole for planting seedlings is prepared in 2-3 weeks. The size of the hole depends on the size of the plant and varies in diameter from 50 to 60 cm. The optimum depth of the pit is 40 cm.
When planting several plants nearby, the holes should be located no less than 1.5–2 m from each other. If they are close to the fence, the same indentation must be observed from the fence.
The soil for planting must be enriched with nutrients. For this, the dug up earth is mixed with compost or manure. After preparing the site, proceed directly to the landing.
Important! Seedlings are best bought with a well-developed root system of at least 20 cm.
Currently, seedlings can be sold either in plastic containers with fertilized soil, or with bare root. In order for a seedling with a bare root to take root well, it is necessary to take a plant either in early spring or late autumn without leaves.
When it lands at the bottom of the landing fossa, it is necessary to pour a small tubercle of the earth and distribute pre-moistened roots over it. If the seedling is in a temporary container, then it must be transferred into the pit along with the ground. Thus, the root system of the plant will not be injured and it will be accepted faster.
Then it is necessary to fill it with fertile soil, trample it well with your foot and water it abundantly (3-5 bucket per bush). Until the seedling takes root, it should be watered 2-3 times a week.
If planting takes place in autumn, a layer of mulch must be created around the root neck to protect the plant from freezing in the winter. In spring, this layer is removed
Despite the fact that the variety Rondom tolerates drought well, special attention should be paid to the plant during the period of fruit set and ripening of berries. This time falls on the end of June - the beginning of July. At this moment, it is necessary to water the plant as often as possible at the rate of 1-2 buckets of water per 1 bush.
It is imperative to loosen the soil when watering and, as necessary, once every 2-3 weeks. Do not forget to remove weeds
For the rapid formation of a powerful crown, the planted plant must be immediately fed with mineral fertilizers. The first feeding is carried out in mid-May, then - in mid-June. Thanks to this, the plant is gaining its growth by the fall.
If in the first year of planting, seedlings grow quite intensively, the next year, the plant should be fed once in early May, in order to provoke fruiting in subsequent years, nitrogen fertilizer is minimized. Adequate stimulation of shrub development will provide humus or compost.
Pest and Disease Control
This variety of red currant is resistant to certain types of diseases, but it does not provide 100% protection. Therefore, it is necessary to know diseases and pests, to be able to recognize them in time and to know methods of dealing with them.
- Anthracnose - the appearance of brown spots on the leaves of the plant, over which tubercles then appear. After which the leaves are deformed and begin to fall off.It is necessary to treat this disease by spraying the bush and the earth around it with a solution of copper sulfate. Spraying is carried out until blooming. In order to prevent, the shrub is sprayed after flowering every 2 weeks with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid.
- Ball rust - damage to leaves and berries with reddish spots. The disease causes spores of the fungus. If it is found, the affected berries and leaves need to be burned, and the bush treated with the necessary fungicidal agents.
- Septoria - the appearance of brown spots with dark spores in the center. If it is found, it is necessary to remove the affected leaves, and treat the shrub with preparations containing copper. To prevent the disease, it is necessary to spray shrubs with copper sulfate several times until flowering.
- Powdery mildew (sferotek) - the formation of light plaque on a plant, which subsequently darkens. The bush stops in development, and the berries and leaves fall off. Treated bushes are treated with fungicides. In order for the disease not to spread, it is necessary to burn the affected shoots.
- Narrow-skinned goldfish. These insects appear in July and lay eggs in the shoots. Damage to the bushes is caused by larvae that gnaw shoots and lay passages in them. Affected branches die, the berries become stunted and smaller. To prevent the death of the plant, in the spring it is necessary to cut off underdeveloped shoots and burn them. Pests must be destroyed. After flowering is completed, after 20-25 days it is necessary to treat the shrub with Actellika solution.
- Caterpillars of the kidney moth. This pest settles at the base of the bush. If it is not detected on time, the bush begins to wither and productivity decreases significantly. To combat this pest, it is necessary to treat the plant during the period of kidney swelling with “Karbofos”, “Nitrofen” or another insecticide.
Trimming and shaping bushes
Pruning is carried out during the dormant period of the plant - the beginning of spring, or the end of autumn. To form the aesthetic shape of the bush, in the first year of life, 50% of the shoots are cut. After that, to ensure uniform light arrival by all branches, up to 20 shoots are left during pruning. After 5 years, pruning is done to rejuvenate the bush.
In order to stimulate the growth of young shoots, the old ones are removed under the root. Every fall it is necessary to produce sanitary pruning. This pruning is done for several reasons:
- Productivity increase.
- I will sell light supply.
- Plant recovery - remove diseased, dry and frostbitten branches.
As a result of trimming, we have:
- The neat shape of the bush.
- Stimulated growth of young shoots.
- Extended fruiting for 15 years.
Important!The main pruning rule is sunlight. should receive all branches in equal amounts.
The most favorable time for trimming is the end of October - the beginning of November. After the leaves fall, it is convenient for the gardener to visually assess the degree of pruning of the bush. The plant in this period is less injured and receives less stress due to the fact that all the vegetative processes of the plant in this period cease.
Autumn pruning is performed in a specific order:
1. Sanitary pruning. With this trimming, the following are deleted:
- short, thin, broken shoots;
- branches lying on the ground;
- one of two intertwined shoots;
- shoots affected by diseases.
2. Anti-aging pruning:
- shoots that are more than 5 years old;
- young shoots (only 4-5 of the strongest remain);
- branches older than 3 years are shortened by a quarter;
- the growth of the first year of life is shortened by a third.
3. Form Trimming - removes all the extra shoots that have grown over the summer.
Fig. 1. Currant pruning: a - annual seedling; b - a biennial bush; c, d - shortening of shoots. Fig. 2. Currant bush before anti-aging pruning (a), after it (b) and pruning of a neglected bush (c)
If the yield has decreased, you can do a little pruning after picking berries. To do this, after harvesting, you need to cut 2-3 main branches under the root. The main thing is that there are no stumps left. This ensures that more light is delivered to the fruiting branches next year.
To prevent diseases and pests, all cut branches and leaves must be burned. After pruning the bushes, special care for them is not required. It is only necessary to prepare the plant for wintering.
Rondom refers to frost-resistant varieties of red currant. Nevertheless, before the winter period, it is necessary to carry out a series of manipulations and prepare the plant for wintering:
- Conduct pruning shrubs.
- Feed potassium phosphorus or organic fertilizers.
- Carry out a moisture recharge watering - about 30 liters of water gradually pour under the bush. This has a beneficial effect on the growth of the root system. It should be noted that the water must be warm so that no ice forms. If autumn is rainy, then the number of waterings is reduced by several times.
- Mulching. This operation is carried out to protect the base of the plant from frost and preserve a beneficial microclimate in the ground. The soil is first loosened, and then covered with sawdust, cardboard or other covering material.
- Hiding shrub. In cold regions, shrubs are covered with polyethylene, piercing holes in it. In warm - branches bend to the ground and fix.
Harvesting and transportation of crops
For proper storage of the crop, the berries must be picked correctly. Berries must certainly be dry, without drops of dew and rain on them. Therefore, harvesting is carried out only in dry weather. If the rainy season has begun, then it is necessary to wait until the plant dries. Berries on the bush will last longer than those that are picked wet.
Did you know? Unripe berries of red currant contain 4 times more vitamin C than ripe. And the lowest content — in overripe fruits.
The fruits of red currant are removed only with brushes, since the skin of the berry is thin and when you detach the berry from the brush, it is easy to damage it, and accordingly lose juice and pulp. The fruits must be ripe.
If the berries are planned to be stored, then all necessary processing and laying for storage should be carried out on the day of harvest
In order to prepare the berries for freezing, it is necessary to sort them out, free from foreign impurities, rinse thoroughly and dry them. Make sure the berries are dry. Moisture significantly reduces the shelf life of currants. Arrange in bags and put in the freezer.
Subject to all norms, berries can be stored in the refrigerator at a temperature of + 4 ° C to -5 ° C. It is also good to store currants in dried form and grated with sugar
If transportation is necessary, the berries are removed from the bush slightly colored, immature. In the process of transportation, the berries acquire color and ripen. This variety is well stored for 2-3 weeks, which means it is suitable for long-term transportation, therefore it is excellent for cultivation for commercial purposes.
If the stem is firmly attached to the branch, the berries are still very immature, and such a crop is not recommended to be harvested even for transportation.
Currant Rhond according to its characteristics (winter and heat resistance) is suitable for cultivation throughout Ukraine and Russia. This variety is an excellent choice for both amateur gardeners and industrial production.